Abstract:
We implement experimentally a method to generate photon-number$-$path and polarization entangled photon pairs using ``beamlike'' type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), in which the signal-idler photon pairs are emitted as two separate circular beams with small emission angles rather than as two diverging cones.

Abstract:
We report an interference experiment in which the two-photon entangled state interference cannot be pictured in terms of the overlap and bunching of two individual photons on a beamsplitter. We also demonstrate that two-photon interference, or photon bunching effect on a beamsplitter, does not occur if the two-photon Feynman amplitudes are distinguishable, even though individual photons do overlap on a beamsplitter. Therefore, two-photon interference cannot be viewed as interference of two individual photons, rather it should be viewed as two-photon or biphoton interfering with itself. The results may also be useful for studying decoherence management in entangled two-qubit systems as we observe near complete restoration of quantum interference after the qubit pairs, generated by a femtosecond laser pulse, went through certain birefringent elements.

Abstract:
One-photon and two-photon wavepackets of entangled two-photon states in spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) fields are calculated and measured experimentally. For type-II SPDC, measured one-photon and two-photon wavepackets agree well with theory. For type-I SPDC, the measured one-photon wavepacket agree with the theory. However, the two-photon wavepacket is much bigger than the expected value and the visibility of interference is low. We identify the sources of this discrepancy as the spatial filtering of the two-photon bandwidth and non-pair detection events caused by the detector apertures and the tuning curve characteristics of the type-I SPDC.

Abstract:
We implement experimentally a deterministic method to prepare and measure so called single-photon two-qubit entangled states or single-photon Bell-states, in which the polarization and the spatial modes of a single-photon each represent a quantum bit. All four single-photon Bell-states can be easily prepared and measured deterministically using linear optical elements alone. We also discuss how this method can be used for recently proposed single-photon two-qubit quantum cryptography protocol.

Abstract:
We report a two-photon interference experiment in which the detected photons have very different properties. The interference is observed even when no effort is made to mask the distinguishing features before the photons are detected. The results can only be explained in terms of indistinguishable two-photon amplitudes.

Abstract:
A linear 50/50 beamsplitter, together with a coincidence measurement, has been widely used in quantum optical experiments, such as teleportation, dense coding, etc., for interferometrically distinguishing, measuring, or projecting onto one of the four two-photon polarization Bell-states $|\psi^{(-)}>$. In this paper, we demonstrate that the coincidence measurement at the output of a beamsplitter cannot be used as an absolute identifier of the input state $|\psi^{(-)}>$ nor as an indication that the input photons have projected to the $|\psi^{(-)}>$ state.

Abstract:
We report experimental observations of correlated-photon statistics in the single-photon detection rate. The usual quantum interference in a two-photon polarization interferometer always accompanies a dip in the single detector counting rate, regardless of whether a dip or peak is seen in the coincidence rate. This effect is explained by taking into account all possible photon number states that reach the detector, rather than considering just the state post-selected by the coincidence measurement. We also report an interferometeric scheme in which the interference peak or dip in coincidence corresponds directly to a peak or dip in the single-photon detection rate.

Abstract:
The quantum state of the photon pair generated from type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a ultrafast laser pulse exhibits strong decoherence in its polarization entanglement, an effect which can be attributed to the clock effect of the pump pulse or, equivalently, to distinguishing spectral information in the two-photon state. Here, we propose novel temporal and spectral engineering techniques to eliminate these detrimental decoherence effects. The temporal engineering of the two-photon wavefunction results in a universal Bell-state synthesizer that is independent of the choice of pump source, crystal parameters, wavelengths of the interacting photons, and the bandwidth of the spectral filter. In the spectral engineering technique, the distinguishing spectral features of the two-photon state are eliminated through modifications to the two-photon source. In addition, spectral engineering also provides a means for the generation of polarization-entangled states with novel spectral characteristics: the frequency-correlated state and the frequency-uncorrelated state.

Abstract:
An entangled pair of photons (1 and 2) are emitted to opposite directions. A narrow slit is placed in the path of photon 1 to provide precise knowledge of its position on the $y$ axis and this also determines the precise $y$ position of its twin, photon 2, due to quantum entanglement. Is photon 2 going to experience a greater uncertainty in momentum, i.e., a greater $\Delta p_{y}$, due to the precise knowledge of its position $y$? The experimental data shows $\Delta y\Delta p_{y}<\hbar $ for photon 2. Can this recent realization of the historical thought experiment of Karl Popper signal a violation of the uncertainty principle?

Abstract:
We report an experimental realization of an atomic vapor quantum memory for the photonic po- larization qubit. The performance of the quantum memory for the polarization qubit, realized with electromagnetically-induced transparency in two spatially separated ensembles of warm Rubidium atoms in a single vapor cell, has been characterized with quantum process tomography. The process fidelity better than 0.91 for up to 16 \mu s of storage time has been achieved.