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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 454 matches for " Yoav Shoham "
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Conditional Utility, Utility Independence, and Utility Networks
Yoav Shoham
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We introduce a new interpretation of two related notions - conditional utility and utility independence. Unlike the traditional interpretation, the new interpretation renders the notions the direct analogues of their probabilistic counterparts. To capture these notions formally, we appeal to the notion of utility distribution, introduced in previous paper. We show that utility distributions, which have a structure that is identical to that of probability distributions, can be viewed as a special case of an additive multiattribute utility functions, and show how this special case permits us to capture the novel senses of conditional utility and utility independence. Finally, we present the notion of utility networks, which do for utilities what Bayesian networks do for probabilities. Specifically, utility networks exploit the new interpretation of conditional utility and utility independence to compactly represent a utility distribution.
Stable Invitations
Hooyeon Lee,Yoav Shoham
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We consider the situation in which an organizer is trying to convene an event, and needs to choose a subset of agents to be invited. Agents have preferences over how many attendees should be at the event and possibly also who the attendees should be. This induces a stability requirement: All invited agents should prefer attending to not attending, and all the other agents should not regret being not invited. The organizer's objective is to find the invitation of maximum size subject to the stability requirement. We investigate the computational complexity of finding the maximum stable invitation when all agents are truthful, as well as the mechanism design problem when agents may strategically misreport their preferences.
Expected Utility Networks
Pierfrancesco La Mura,Yoav Shoham
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We introduce a new class of graphical representations, expected utility networks (EUNs), and discuss some of its properties and potential applications to artificial intelligence and economic theory. In EUNs not only probabilities, but also utilities enjoy a modular representation. EUNs are undirected graphs with two types of arc, representing probability and utility dependencies respectively. The representation of utilities is based on a novel notion of conditional utility independence, which we introduce and discuss in the context of other existing proposals. Just as probabilistic inference involves the computation of conditional probabilities, strategic inference involves the computation of conditional expected utilities for alternative plans of action. We define a new notion of conditional expected utility (EU) independence, and show that in EUNs node separation with respect to the probability and utility subgraphs implies conditional EU independence.
Mechanism Design with Execution Uncertainty
Ryan Porter,Amir Ronen,Yoav Shoham,Moshe Tennenholtz
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We introduce the notion of fault tolerant mechanism design, which extends the standard game theoretic framework of mechanism design to allow for uncertainty about execution. Specifically, we define the problem of task allocation in which the private information of the agents is not only their costs to attempt the tasks, but also their probabilities of failure. For several different instances of this setting we present technical results, including positive ones in the form of mechanisms that are incentive compatible, individually rational and efficient, and negative ones in the form of impossibility theorems.
Truth Revelation in Approximately Efficient Combinatorial Auctions
Daniel Lehmann,Liadan Ita O'Callaghan,Yoav Shoham
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: Some important classical mechanisms considered in Microeconomics and Game Theory require the solution of a difficult optimization problem. This is true of mechanisms for combinatorial auctions, which have in recent years assumed practical importance, and in particular of the gold standard for combinatorial auctions, the Generalized Vickrey Auction (GVA). Traditional analysis of these mechanisms - in particular, their truth revelation properties - assumes that the optimization problems are solved precisely. In reality, these optimization problems can usually be solved only in an approximate fashion. We investigate the impact on such mechanisms of replacing exact solutions by approximate ones. Specifically, we look at a particular greedy optimization method. We show that the GVA payment scheme does not provide for a truth revealing mechanism. We introduce another scheme that does guarantee truthfulness for a restricted class of players. We demonstrate the latter property by identifying natural properties for combinatorial auctions and showing that, for our restricted class of players, they imply that truthful strategies are dominant. Those properties have applicability beyond the specific auction studied.
Collusion in Unrepeated, First-Price Auctions with an Uncertain Number of Participants
Kevin Leyton-Brown,Moshe Tennenholtz,Navin Bhat,Yoav Shoham
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: We consider the question of whether collusion among bidders (a "bidding ring") can be supported in equilibrium of unrepeated first-price auctions. Unlike previous work on the topic such as that by McAfee and McMillan [1992] and Marshall and Marx [2007], we do not assume that non-colluding agents have perfect knowledge about the number of colluding agents whose bids are suppressed by the bidding ring, and indeed even allow for the existence of multiple cartels. Furthermore, while we treat the association of bidders with bidding rings as exogenous, we allow bidders to make strategic decisions about whether to join bidding rings when invited. We identify a bidding ring protocol that results in an efficient allocation in Bayes{Nash equilibrium, under which non-colluding agents bid straightforwardly, and colluding agents join bidding rings when invited and truthfully declare their valuations to the ring center. We show that bidding rings benefit ring centers and all agents, both members and non-members of bidding rings, at the auctioneer's expense. The techniques we introduce in this paper may also be useful for reasoning about other problems in which agents have asymmetric information about a setting.
The Legitimacy of Using Excessive Force during Civil Policing among Israel’s Border Guard Police Officers  [PDF]
Efrat Shoham, Shirley Yehosha Stern
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.32003
Abstract: This research aims to examine two main issues: What is the level of legitimacy attributed to the use of excessive force during civil policing among Border Guard Police officers, compared to ordinary police officers and civilians, and how legitimate is it to involve external supervisory bodies when there is a suspicion of unreasonable or unjustified use of force? Every democratic state faces the need to find a balance between two theoretical and normative models: on the one hand the “Due Process Model” which aims to protect the rights of suspected, accused or convicted individuals and, on the other, the “Crime Control Model”, mainly based on an efficient and economical judicial system, and the need to provide society with a sense of security on a daily basis. The research assumption is that police officers as a whole, and specifically members of the Border Police who handle disturbances of peace as well as legal violations, alongside the necessity to combat security threats, tend to hold closer to the “Crime Control Model” and less to the “Due Process Model”, which the police officers find hinders their ability to effectively manage crime. In order to examine this assumption, an attitude questionnaire was constructed, examining the degree of legitimacy for the use of excessive force on the one hand, and supervision of the use of excessive force in police work on the other. The questionnaire was distributed to 140 Border Guard officers and ordinary police officers serving in the Southern Command of the Israeli Police. In addition, 60 questionnaires were distributed to ordinary civilians. Our findings show a high level of support among police officers and civilians alike for the use of excessive force in civil policing operations. The highest level of legitimacy towards the use of excessive force was found, as expected, among the Border Guard officers. The research concludes that the attitudes of the police officers, especially those of the Border Guard who are fighting a constant battle against security threats alongside the war against crime, greatly restrict the power of external and internal supervision mechanisms to effectively supervise the use of unreasonable force during civilian policing.
The Modes of Evolutionary Emergence of Primal and Late Pandemic Influenza Virus Strains from Viral Reservoir in Animals: An Interdisciplinary Analysis
Dany Shoham
Influenza Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/861792
Abstract: Based on a wealth of recent findings, in conjunction with earliest chronologies pertaining to evolutionary emergences of ancestral RNA viruses, ducks, Influenzavirus A (assumingly within ducks), and hominids, as well as to the initial domestication of mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and wild horse (Equus ferus), presumed genesis modes of primordial pandemic influenza strains have multidisciplinarily been configured. The virological fundamentality of domestication and farming of those various avian and mammalian species has thereby been demonstrated and broadly elucidated, within distinctive coevolutionary paradigms. The mentioned viral genesis modes were then analyzed, compatibly with common denominators and flexibility that mark the geographic profile of the last 18 pandemic strains, which reputedly emerged since 1510, the antigenic profile of the last 10 pandemic strains since 1847, and the genomic profile of the last 5 pandemic strains since 1918, until present. Related ecophylogenetic and biogeographic aspects have been enlightened, alongside with the crucial role of spatial virus gene dissemination by avian hosts. A fairly coherent picture of primary and late evolutionary and genomic courses of pandemic strains has thus been attained, tentatively. Specific patterns underlying complexes prone to generate past and future pandemic strains from viral reservoir in animals are consequentially derived. 1. Introduction The historical emergence and pandemic potency of influenza type A virus—a prominent anthropozoonotic single-stranded segmented RNA virus (family Orthomyxoviridae)—have long constituted challenging phenomena. The Greek physician Hippocrates, the “Father of Medicine,” first described influenza in 412?BC [1]. The name “influenza” was derived from the belief of Italian astrologers in the Middle Ages that the periodic appearance of the disease was in some way related to “influence of heavenly bodies” [2]. Rather earthily, the French named influenza as “the grippe,” suggesting the acute onset of illness, upon which the patient suddenly was seized or gripped by the disease [3]. Yet still recently, influenza has been seriously attributed to introduction of viruses from the space, due to meteorological processes [4]. As far as the origins of life are concerned at large, it has been proposed that cometary ice might have embodied the provenance of earliest precursors of viruses in general on Planet Earth and perhaps cosmically [5]. Influenza pandemics are
Reconstructing the Narrative of Rape in the Kibbutz by the Israeli Press
Efrat Shoham
International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2009,
Abstract: The author proposes that national press coverage of sex crimes in Israeli kibbutzim is intended to restructure the public’s perception by showing that such crimes are a symptom of broader social problems. Articles about a rape incident in Kibbutz Shomrat published during 1991–1995 in the local kibbutz press are compared with a sample of articles dealing with the same subject in two of the largest daily Israeli newspapers during the same period. Coverage by both sources of a later story of rape in another kibbutz from 2005 is also examined. The author demonstrates that the national press used the rape incident to invalidate the presumed moral superiority of the kibbutz movement and presented the crime as a symptom of the broad ideological and social crisis faced by the kibbutz movement. The local kibbutz press used a “defensive attribution” mechanism to construct their narrative, allowing kibbutz members to distance themselves, and the values their community professes, from the rape case.
Techniques of Denial towards Excessive Use of Force by the Police among Israeli Talkbacks
Efrat Shoham
Journal of Politics and Law , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v5n4p172
Abstract: The Internet community has become one of the main public arena, for sharing and solidarity declarations, or alternatively, of denunciation, exclusion and expulsion. This paper wishes to examine utilization of Denial techniques within online comment posters towards excessive use of police force, in which the negative components are almost irrefutable. In order to examine the legitimization level provided over the Internet, towards expressions of excessive use of police force, a qualitative analysis was made on online talkback posters regarding two different incidents of excessive use of force towards civilians, which were widely resonated through the Israeli electronic media ("the Avenging Police Officers" and the" Kicking Policeman"). Our finding suggested that in both cases, the most frequent online comments were based on responsibility denial and on denial of the victim. The neutralization of the deviant meaning of incidents involving excessive use of force was mainly based on a triple combination of rationalization techniques: undermining the credibility of the story, and especially that of the narrator; presenting an alternative order of events that turns a story of police brutality into a justified incident of self-defense; and switching the roles of criminal and victim by presenting the assaulted individual as an offensive and dangerous person. This triple combination allows the comment posters to retell stories of excessive force as logical and accepted narratives.
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