Abstract:
It has recently been shown that crystalline defects - dislocation lines - in three dimensional topological insulators, can host protected one dimensional modes propagating along their length. We generalize this observation to the case of topological superconductors and other insulators of the Altland Zirnbauer classification, in d=2,3 dimensions. In general, protected dislocation modes are controlled by the topological indices in (d-1) dimensions. This is shown by relating this feature to characteristic properties of surface states of these topological phases. This observation also allows us to constrain these surface states properties, which is illustrated by an addition formula for (d-1) and (d-2) indices of a topological superconductor.

Abstract:
We point out the possibility of nearly flat band with Chern number C=2 on the dice lattice in a simple nearest-neighbor tightbinding model. This lattice can be naturally formed by three adjacent $(111)$ layers of cubic lattice, which may be realized in certain thin films or artificial heterostructures, such as SrTiO$_3$/SrIrO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ trilayer heterostructure grown along $(111)$ direction. The flatness of two bands is protected by the bipartite nature of the lattice. Including the Rashba spin-orbit coupling on nearest-neighbor bonds separate the flat bands with others but maintains their flatness. Repulsive interaction will drive spontaneous ferromagnetism on the Kramer pair of flat bands and split them into two nearly flat bands with Chern number $C=\pm 2$. We thus propose that this may be a route to quantum anomalous Hall effect and further conjecture that partial filling of the C=2 band may realize exotic fractional quantum Hall effects.

Abstract:
Recently a new class of quantum phases of matter: symmetry protected topological states, such as topological insulators, attracted much attention. In presence of interactions, group cohomology provides a classification of these [X. Chen et al., arXiv:1106.4772v5 (2011)]. These phases have short-ranged entanglement, and no topological order in the bulk. However, when long-range entangled topological order is present, it is much less understood how to classify quantum phases of matter in presence of global symmetries. Here we present a classification of bosonic gapped quantum phases with or without long-range entanglement, in the presence or absence of on-site global symmetries. In 2+1 dimensions, the quantum phases in the presence of a global symmetry group SG, and with topological order described by a finite gauge group GG, are classified by the cohomology group H^3(SGxGG,U(1)). Generally in d+1 dimensions, such quantum phases are classified by H^{d+1}(SGxGG,U(1)). Although we only partially understand to what extent our classification is complete, we present an exactly solvable local bosonic model, in which the topological order is emergent, for each given class in our classification. When the global symmetry is absent, the topological order in our models is described by the general Dijkgraaf-Witten discrete gauge theories. When the topological order is absent, our models become the exactly solvable models for symmetry protected topological phases [X. Chen et al., arXiv:1106.4772v5 (2011)]. When both the global symmetry and the topological order are present, our models describe symmetry enriched topological phases. Our classification includes, but goes beyond the previously discussed projective symmetry group classification. Measurable signatures of these symmetry enriched topological phases, and generalizations of our classification are discussed.

Abstract:
Phases of matter are sharply defined in the thermodynamic limit. One major challenge of accurately simulating quantum phase diagrams of interacting quantum systems is due to the fact that numerical simulations usually deal with the energy density, a local property of quantum wavefunctions, while identifying different quantum phases generally rely on long-range physics. In this paper we construct generic fully symmetric quantum wavefunctions under certain assumptions using a type of tensor networks: projected entangled pair states, and provide practical simulation algorithms based on them. We find that quantum phases can be organized into crude classes distinguished by short-range physics, which is related to the fractionalization of both on-site symmetries and space-group symmetries. Consequently, our simulation algorithms, which are useful to study long-range physics as well, are expected to be able to sharply determine crude classes in interacting quantum systems efficiently. Examples of these crude classes are demonstrated in half-integer quantum spin systems on the kagome lattice. Limitations and generalizations of our results are discussed.

Abstract:
Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful computational tool for separating independent source signals from their linear mixtures. ICA has been widely applied in neuroimaging studies to identify and characterize underlying brain functional networks. An important goal in such studies is to assess the effects of subjects' clinical and demographic covariates on the spatial distributions of the functional networks. Currently, covariate effects are not incorporated in existing group ICA decomposition methods. Hence, they can only be evaluated through ad-hoc approaches which may not be accurate in many cases. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical covariate ICA model that provides a formal statistical framework for estimating and testing covariate effects in ICA decomposition. A maximum likelihood method is proposed for estimating the covariate ICA model. We develop two expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms to obtain maximum likelihood estimates. The first is an exact EM algorithm, which has analytically tractable E-step and M-step. Additionally, we propose a subspace-based approximate EM, which can significantly reduce computational time while still retain high model-fitting accuracy. Furthermore, to test covariate effects on the functional networks, we develop a voxel-wise approximate inference procedure which eliminates the needs of computationally expensive covariance estimation. The performance of the proposed methods is evaluated via simulation studies. The application is illustrated through an fMRI study of Zen meditation.

Abstract:
We studied underdoped high $T_c$ superconductors using a spinon-dopon approach (or doped-carrier approach) to $t$-$t'$-$t''$-$J$ model, where spinon carries spin and dopon carries both spin and charge. In this approach, the mixing of spinon and dopon describes superconductivity. We found that a nonuniform mixing in $k$-space is most effective in lowering the $t'$ and $t''$ hopping energy. We showed that at mean-field level, the mixing is proportional to quasiparticle spectral weight $Z_-$. We also found a simple monte-carlo algorithm to calculate $Z_{-}$ from the projected spinon-dopon wavefunction, which confirms the mean-field result. Thus the non-uniform mixing caused by $t'$ and $t"$ explains the different electron spectral weights near the nodal and anti-nodal points ({\it i.e.} the dichotomy) observed in underdoped high $T_c$ superconductors. For hole-doped sample, we found that $Z$ is enhanced in the nodal region and suppressed in the anti-nodal region. For electron doped sample, the same approach leads to a suppressed $Z$ in the nodal region and enhanced in the anti-nodal region, in agreement with experimental observations.

Abstract:
We study three dimensional systems where strong repulsion leads to an insulating state via spontaneously generated spin-orbit interactions. We discuss a microscopic model where the resulting state is topological. Such topological `Mott' insulators differ from their band insulator counterparts in that they possess an additional order parameter, a rotation matrix, that describes the spontaneous breaking of spin-rotation symmetry. We show that line defects of this order are associated with protected one dimensional modes in the {\em strong} topological Mott insulator, which provides a bulk characterization of this phase.

Abstract:
Spin liquids are novel states of matter with fractionalized excitations. A recent numerical study of Hubbard model on a honeycomb lattice\cite{Meng2010} indicates that a gapped spin liquid phase exists close to the Mott transition. Using Projective Symmetry Group, we classify all the possible spin liquid states by Schwinger fermion mean-field approach. We find there is only one fully gapped spin liquid candidate state: "Sublattice Pairing State" that can be realized up to the 3rd neighbor mean-field amplitudes, and is in the neighborhood of the Mott transition. We propose this state as the spin liquid phase discovered in the numerical work. To understand whether SPS can be realized in the Hubbard model, we study the mean-field phase diagram in the $J_1-J_2$ spin-1/2 model and find an s-wave pairing state. We argue that s-wave pairing state is not a stable phase and the true ground state may be SPS. A scenario of a continuous phase transition from SPS to the semimetal phase is proposed. This work also provides guideline for future variational studies of Gutzwiller projected wavefunctions.

Abstract:
A central theme in many body physics is emergence - new properties arise when several particles are brought together. Particularly fascinating is the idea that the quantum statistics may be an emergent property. This was first noted in the Skyrme model of nuclear matter, where a theory formulated entirely in terms of a bosonic order parameter field contains fermionic excitations. These excitations are smooth field textures, and believed to describe neutrons and protons. We argue that a similar phenomenon occurs in topological insulators when superconductivity gaps out their surface states. Here, a smooth texture is naturally described by a three component real vector. Two components describe superconductivity, while the third captures the band topology. Such a vector field can assume a 'knotted' configuration in three dimensional space - the Hopf texture - that cannot smoothly be unwound. Here we show that the Hopf texture is a fermion. To describe the resulting state, the regular Landau-Ginzburg theory of superconductivity must be augmented by a topological Berry phase term. When the Hopf texture is the cheapest fermionic excitation, striking consequences for tunneling experiments are predicted.

Abstract:
We study the problem of a single Dirac fermion in a quantizing orbital magnetic field, when the chemical potential is at the Dirac point. This can be realized on the surface of a topological insulator, such as Bi2Se3, tuned to neutrality. We study the effect of both long range Coulomb interactions (strength alpha=e^2/(epsilon hbar v_F).) and local repulsion U which capture the effect of electron correlations. Interactions resolve the degeneracy of free fermions in the zeroth Landau level at half filling, but in a manner different from that in graphene. For weak interactions, U=0 and alpha<<1, a composite Fermi liquid is expected. However, in the limit of strong local correlations (large U but alpha<<1), a charge density wave phase is predicted, which we term "axion stripe". While reminiscent of quantum Hall stripe phases, its wavelength is parametrically larger than the magnetic length, and the induced fermion mass term (axion) also oscillates with the charge density. This phase is destroyed by sufficiently strong Zeeman coupling. A phase diagram is constructed and consequences for experiments are discussed.