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Ben-Naim in three articles dismissed and “answered” the Levinthal’s paradox. He announces there are pitfalls caused by the “misinterpretation” of thermodynamic hypothesis. He claims no existence of Gibbs free energy formula where the variable is a protein’s conformation X . His Gibbs energy functional is G(T, P, N, P(R)), where the variable is probability distributions P (R) of the conformations. His “minimum distribution Peq” is wrong. By carefully establishing thermodynamic systems, we demonstrate how to apply quantum statistics to derive Gibbs free energy formula G(X). The formula of the folding force is given.
The purpose of this article is to discuss a modified
Halpern-type iteration algorithm for a countable family of uniformly totally
quasi- ? -asymptotically nonexpansive multi-valued mappings and
establish some strong convergence theorems under certain conditions. We utilize
the theorems to study a modified Halpern-type iterative algorithm for a system
of equilibrium problems. The results improve and extend the corresponding
results of Chang et al. (Applied
Mathematics and Computation, 218, 6489-6497).
discusses how to arouse students’ potentialities in learning English by using
two important non-intelligence factors: motivation and attitude. With the
need to address the diversity of language learners in the contemporary ESL
context, the value of non-intelligence factors cannot be underestimated. There
are several non-intelligence factors that influence success or failure in
English learning, but the two major ones include motivation and attitude.
Motivation drives students towards a desired goal, while attitude shapes
students’ perceptions of the curriculum, peers, as well as the instructor. It
is important for language educators to recognize the value of these factors if
quality outcomes in terms of English learning are to be delivered.
US—Definitive Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on Certain Products
from China is the initial WTO
dispute in which China claims that US-countervailing duties on certain products
from China are inconsistent with the obligations of the United States under the
Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (“SCM Agreement”). In
this dispute, the specific meaning of “public bodies” within Article 1.1 (a)
(1) of the SCM Agreement and the question of whether China’s state-owned
commercial banks (“SOCB”) constitute “public bodies” are the heart of the
matter. This thesis will analyze these issues by examining the reports of the
Panel and the Appellate Body. In particular, the thesis will argue that the
theory of the governmental function advanced by China is much more persuasive
than that of governmental control in terms of defining “public bodies”.
Although China’s SOCBs have gone through several stages of reforms, the
majority ownership of them has remained in the hands of the Chinese government.
However, SOCBs’ policy-oriented nature has been largely marginalized, and
currently they only perform subsidiary governmental functions. In this regard,
the conclusion this thesis will attempt to reach is that the WTO system needs
to give developing countries like China more policy flexibility in order to
upgrade their international trade participation to the level required and
followed by developed countries. During the process, developing countries
should also make the best use of their latent comparative advantage and the
effects of globalization.