Abstract:
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing developed countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment to invest in projects that reduce emissions in developing countries as an alternative to more expensive emission reductions in their own countries. In terms of the CDM areas, there are huge potential commercial opportunities between China and the United Kingdom since China signed the Kyoto Protocol.

Abstract:
We present asymmetric gold nanocrosses with highly tunable double resonances for the near-infrared (NIR) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), optimizing electric field enhancement at both the excitation and Stokes Raman wavelengths. The calculated largest SERS enhancement factor can reach a value as large as . We have found that the peak separation, the resonance position, and peak intensity ratio of the double-resonance gold nanocrosses can be tuned by changing the structural dimensions or the light polarization. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect boosts the Raman signals of adsorbates on the surfaces of metallic nanostructures when their plasmon resonances and consequently an enhanced near field are excited at the wavelength of the stimulating laser beam. The enhancement factor (EF) of SERS may reach a level of single-molecule resolution [1, 2]. The SERS technique has demonstrated its use in many applications such as a pH meter, biosensing, and bioimaging [3–5]. Recently, because of the usage of SERS for in vivo bioapplications, there is increased interest of SERS in the near-infrared (NIR) region (700–1400？nm) in the optical spectrum, where blood and tissue are most transparent and light can penetrate tissue over a deepest distance [6, 7]. There are two mechanisms behind SERS, electromagnetic (EM) and charge transfer (CT) effect, which are extensively mentioned in the literature. It is, however, generally accepted that the EM effect is the dominant one. In the EM mechanism, the EF of each adsorbate is proportional to the product of the field intensity at the laser excitation wavelength and that at the Stokes-shifted Raman scattering wavelength, namely, . As plasmon resonances, which are usually responsible for the EM enhancement mechanism, are spectrally relatively broad, usually it is assumed that and are equal if the center of the resonance is chosen in between the two wavelength positions. For NIR SERS, however, the Raman scattering wavelength and the excitation wavelength can be separated by over 100？nm, limiting the efficiency of a single resonance. Very recently, SERS substrates with double plasmon resonances at the laser excitation and Raman scattering wavelengths have been demonstrated by Crozier’s group by showing higher enhancement compared to similar structures with single resonances [8, 9]. In addition, it is well known that a strong plasmonic coupling in the structures (e.g., bow-tie and disk dimer) will generate the near-field hot spots in the tiny gap, which may amplify the Raman signal significantly [10–13]. In this

Abstract:
Mega-events such as the World Cup and the Olympics have been used for economic development, urban transformation and global status enhancement. Beijing and Shanghai embraced these purposes when they won the bids for the 2008 Olympics and the 2010 World Expo respectively. This article examines the pre-event economic changes in Beijing and Shanghai that are associated with their pursuit of mega-events. Changes in a group of economic indicators are tracked from 1997 to 2006. It was found that after winning the bids for the Olympics and the World Expo, Beijing and Shanghai experienced greater growth in construction and tourism, a speeding-up in economic development and restructuring, and an improvement in physical infrastructure. However, the enhancement of global exposure was not accompanied by growth in foreign trade and in the finance, insurance and real estate (FIRE) industries. The empirical analyses place the mega-events in large economic contexts and provide a base for future post-event studies.

Abstract:
‘Social Research Methods’, as a methodology course, combines theories and practices closely. Based on the synergy theory, this paper tries to establish an integrated multi-level bilingual teaching mode. Starting from the transformation of teaching concepts, we should integrate interactions, experiences, and researches together and focus on cultivating innovative and practical international talents.

Abstract:
Formative assessment reform is an important tool that can bring about a fundamental change in the traditional education system. It is beyond question that this measure will set new scientific objectives in education. Given this probable advantage, formative assessment is a necessary step that will align our methods with international practice. It is all the more crucial in light of the international character of computer science as a discipline; hence, it has substantial practical applications. Consequently, in order to meet international standards, we should remedy the existing serious limitation in the traditional means of assessment. With the current practice of computer technology education, this paper will introduce a reform in formative assessment and propose a software framework of the web-based practice teaching administration platform for formative assessment. With a certain degree of versatility, scalability, flexibility and value of promotion, this system has been partially adopted in department of computer science.

Abstract:
We consider the iso-spectral real manifolds of tridiagonal Hessenberg matrices with real eigenvalues. The manifolds are described by the iso-spectral flows of indefinite Toda lattice equations introduced by the authors [Physica, 91D (1996), 321-339]. These Toda lattices consist of $2^{N-1}$ different systems with hamiltonians $H = (1/2) \sum_{k=1}^{N} y_k^2 + \sum_{k=1}^{N-1} s_ks_{k+1} \exp(x_k-x_{k+1})$, where $s_i=\pm 1$. We compactify the manifolds by adding infinities according to the Toda flows which blow up in finite time except the case with all $s_is_{i+1}=1$. The resulting manifolds are shown to be nonorientable for $N>2$, and the symmetric group is the semi-direct product of $(\ZZ_2)^{N-1}$ and the permutation group $S_N$. These properties identify themselves with ``small covers'' introduced by Davis and Januszkiewicz [Duke Mathematical Journal, 62 (1991), 417-451]. As a corollary of our construction, we give a formula on the total numbers of zeroes for a system of exponential polynomials generated as Hankel determinant.

Abstract:
We consider a generalization of the full symmetric Toda hierarchy where the matrix $\tilde {L}$ of the Lax pair is given by $\tilde {L}=LS$, with a full symmetric matrix $L$ and a nondegenerate diagonal matrix $S$. The key feature of the hierarchy is that the inverse scattering data includes a class of noncompact groups of matrices, such as $O(p,q)$. We give an explicit formula for the solution to the initial value problem of this hierarchy. The formula is obtained by generalizing the orthogonalization procedure of Szeg\"{o}, or the QR factorization method of Symes. The behaviors of the solutions are also studied. Generically, there are two types of solutions, having either sorting property or blowing up to infinity in finite time. The $\tau$-function structure for the tridiagonal hierarchy is also studied.

Abstract:
We study an iso-spectral deformation of general matrix which is a natural generalization of the Toda lattice equation. We prove the integrability of the deformation, and give an explicit formula for the solution to the initial value problem. The formula is obtained by generalizing the orthogonalization procedure of Szeg\"{o}. Based on the root spaces for simple Lie algebras, we consider several reductions of the hierarchy. These include not only the integrable systems studied by Bogoyavlensky and Kostant, but also their generalizations which were not known to be integrable before. The behaviors of the solutions are also studied. Generically, there are two types of solutions, having either sorting property or blowing up to infinity in finite time.

Abstract:
We give a summary on the recent development of chaos theory in topological dynamics, focusing on Li-Yorke chaos, Devaney chaos, distributional chaos, positive topological entropy, weakly mixing sets and so on, and their relationships.

Abstract:
Aiming at the unsafe of water quality which is the core problem in rural drinking water safety, the study col-lected 221 water samples of rural drinking water sources in Ya'an and detected the concentrations of the car-cinogen and the non-carcinogen. Based on the analysis of water environment characteristics and the identifi-cation of water environment health risk source of Sichuan Ya’an City, which includes seven counties and a district and is the typical region of the western margin of Sichuan Basin, this study calculated and analyzed the carcinogenic risk (R) and non-carcinogenic risk (hazard index, HI) by applying the health risk model recommended by the US National Research Council of National Academy of Science. Then, taking advan-tage of the geo-statistic spatial analysis function of ArcGIS, this study analyzed the assessment result data (R and HI), selected the proper interpolation approach and educed R and HI spatial distribution maps of the study area. R and HI of the single factor and integrate factors were evaluated and thus obtained the following conclusions: For one thing, the cancerous risk indexes of the vast majority of water sources (about 94%) is the level of 10-7 and it belong to the safety extension. The main carcinogen in the water sources are As, Cr6+ and Pb, their concentrations are in the ranges of 0.004-0.01, 0.005, 0.01mg/l respectively and such water source mainly distributed in Yucheng district and Mingshan county. For another, the non-cancerous hazard indexes of the vast majority of water sources (about 98%) is also less than the limit value 1 and will not harm the local residents. The health risk of non-carcinogen comes mainly from As and fluoride, their concentra-tions are in the ranges of 0.004-0.01 and 0.1-4.2mg/l respectively. The results of the integrate factors health risk assessment showed that the total cancerous risk were still at the level of 10-6, only 12 drinking water source investigation sites (5%) exceeded the drinking water management standard value of EPA (the limit value is 10-6); the total non-cancerous hazard indexes are still in the range of 10-2-10-1, and will not harm the local residents either, only 18 drinking water source investigation sites (8%) exceeded the drinking water management standard value of EPA(the limit value is 1).The densely populated areas such as Yucheng Dis-trict, Tianquan County, Yingjing County and Shimian County are where the four contaminating materials, i.e., As, Cr6+, Pb and fluoride should be monitored with emphasis. Study results disclosed the health risk control indexes