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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11070 matches for " Ye Haosheng "
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MODERNISM,POSTMODERNISM IN WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY AND BEYOND
西方心理学中的现代主义、后现代主义及其超越

Ye Haosheng,
叶浩生

心理学报 , 2004,
Abstract: This paper considered confrontations and conflicts between modernism and postmodernism in western psychology, describing the characteristics of modernist psychology and postmodern psychology, and searching the way beyond them. Almost all the schools of psychology, appearing after the establishment of Wundt" experimental psychology, except postmodern psychology, belong to modernism, including not only mainstream psychology, but also the humanist approach in psychology. The characteristics of modernism in psychology are: (1) it pays exclusive attention to the value of science and believes that we can uncover the objective truth about human psychology and behavior by scientific methods; (2) it accepts empiricism as its epistemological foundation and emphasizes observation and experimentation in psychological investigation;(3) it puts the individual in the center of its attention, and individual mind becomes the subject matter of psychology . In contrast, the postmodern approach in psychology demonstrates its characteristics as following: (1) postmodern approach deconstructs the modernist psychology by criticizing its foundationalism, essentialism and dualism, and shows itself as anti-realism and anti-scientism. (2) it takes social constructionism as its epistemological foundation, and explains knowledge, truth and meaning as a product of a social construction. (3) modernist psychology has typically regarded language as the passive vehicle for our thoughts and emotions, but from the point of view of postmodernism, language is more than simply a way of expressing ourselves. In addition, postmodern approach claims three other kinds of shift in the practices of psychology, that is, the shift from individual to relationships, from an objective world to a world of social construction, and from empiricist methodology to discourse analysis. In the author's opinion, although there are sharp differences between the two approaches, there are still some common places between them on which we may integrate them and go beyond their opposites. We may take the scientific realism as the epistemological foundation for the integration. For the purpose of the integration, the attitude of the openness, co-operation and tolerance are needed.
Evolutionary Psychology'''' Way of Thinking and Its Implications
进化心理学思维方式的变革及其意义

Ye Haosheng,
叶浩生

心理科学进展 , 2005,
Abstract: Evolutionary of psychology is a new movement in Western psychology. From the angle of evolutionary theory, evolutionary psychology is the application of the principles of evolutionary biology to the understanding of the origin and design of mind. It seeks to explain the structure and function of human mind with the view of Genetics and oppose the view hold by empiricists that human mind resembles a blank slate. There are, however, serious weaknesses in methodology of evolutionary psychology, and its hereditism has been criticized by many psychologists.
Multiculturalism and the Development of Cross-Cultural Psychology
多元文化论与跨文化心理学的发展

Ye Haosheng,
叶浩生

心理科学进展 , 2004,
Abstract: The importance of culture in psychological research is emphasized by multiculturalism. It regards cultures as pluralistic and equal, and argues against cultural imperialism in cross-cultural psychology. Under the impact of multiculturalism, cross-cultural psychology begins to get rid of the prejudice of ethnocentrism in Anglo-American psychology, and shows trends towards the integration between Etic and Emic approaches and the merging of cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology and indigenous psychology.
AN ANALYSIS OF THE CULTURAL TURN OF WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY
试析现代西方心理学的文化转向

Ye Haosheng,
叶浩生

心理学报 , 2001,
Abstract: This thesis deals with the trend that more and more psychologists in western countries pay attention to social historical and cultural factors in their psychological researches. It seems that western psychology increasingly turns to cultural considerations. In the past, western psychology was influenced by positivism, which asserts that science is value neutral, therefore psychology should be free from any cultural influence. But positivism has already declined now, and new philosophy of science regards science as value loaded and puts science in the social and cultural context. The new philosophy of science provides theoretical background for the cultural turn. Another important reason for the turn is the indigenous movement in the third world psychology. The psychologists in the third world are tryng to reduce the dependence on western psychology and to establish an indigenous psychology in terms of their own cultural tradition. Western psychologists were influenced by the movement and began to take culture into account. The cultural turn shows in the following respects: (a). The natural science model of psychology has been criticized and some psychologists hold that psychological phenomenon is different from natural phenomenon, therefore it is inappropriate to take natural science as psychology's ideal model. (b) Multicultural psychology comes into being. The psychologists that accept multiculturalism think that traditional psychology is a product of mainstream culture and gives little regard to minority group culture. These psychologists insist that all the cultures be included in psychological research in order to cure culture blindness. (c) Mainstream cross cultural psychology was criticized for its ethnocentrism and universalism, and transcultural psychology, a branch of human science instead of natural science like cross cultural psychology has emerged. (d) Psychologists from cognitive psychology, developmental psychology and health psychology begin to recognize the importance of cultural factors. The author concludes that the cultural turn provides a "fourth dimension" to the psychological interpretation of human behavior which gives additional meaning to psychodynamic, humanistic, and behavioral interpretations. The cultural turn is, in the author's opinion, conducive to the development of western psychology.
The Second Cognitive Revolution And The Establishment Of Social Constructionism
第二次认知革命与社会建构论的产生

Ye Haosheng,
叶浩生

心理科学进展 , 2003,
Abstract: The second cognitive revolution is a postmodern one and it results in the establishment of social constructionism. Social constructionism claims that : (1)knowledge is a product of social construction; (2)mental phenomena like personality, attitude, emotion etc. are not inside people but between people; (3) language is not straightforward expression of thought but a pre-condition for thought; (4) all forms of knowledge are historically and culturally specific; (5) psychologists should give more attention to the function of discourse and discursive analysis may be the basic method of psychology.
ON THE OPPOSITE TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGYIN WESTERN COUNTRIES
论西方心理学发展中的几种对立倾向

Ye Haosheng,
叶浩生

心理学报 , 1997,
Abstract: the current state of psychology in westerm countires was examined from theperspective, that there were three opposite trends in the development of psychology,These opposite trends are applied psychology\discourage unified psychology,centrifugal\centripetal trends, and the efforts to constrcuct\discourage unified psychology.Factors contributing to tensions between these two trends were analyzed.
Theoretical Thinking about The Limitations of Evolutionary Psychology
有关进化心理学局限性的理论思考

Ye Haosheng,
叶浩生

心理学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Evolutionary psychology(EP) is a relatively new perspective in psychology.Not only does it attract a number of followers,but also it has engendered considerable debates.The purpose of this paper is to discuss its weaknesses and limitations by focusing on its core hypothesis,methodology and epistemology:(1).A core hypothesis of EP claims that the mind contains hundreds or thousands of modules,each with a specialized design that performs one function when interacting with the external world.Evolutionary psychologist maintain that,although human mind contains a degree of modularity,it functions integratively.It is difficult to imagine the complexity and size of the brain that would make this possible.Moreover,the operation of modules is not specified by our genetic program and the mind/brain do not have lots of "genetically specified," domain specific,informationally encapsulated modules.The assumption of massive modularity lacks experience validation.(2).The hallmark of scientific theory is its falsifiability and refutability,the cornerstone of modern sciences.Although the majority of scientists have adopted this criterion,most evolutionary psychologists do not accept this approach.In EP,historical narrative and speculation has often been used as main methodology.Such narrative and speculation are not subject to falsifiability.While historical narrative may played important role in evolutionary biology due to its lack of direct data,it is a different issue as far as psychology is concerned.Psychology is,by and large,an experimental science.Its conceptions and hypotheses must be tested by empirical evidence.No narration and speculation are allowed in psychological science.(3).EP claims that contemporary human behaviors are governed directly by genes that reflect adaptation of an ancestral environment.However,recent evidences from biological sciences showed that although genes can control some general patterns of human behaviors and must be involved in the construction of our brains,genes cannot control our individual behavioral choices.They indeed influence our behaviors,but they are not an exclusive factor that can determine the development of our behaviors.Findings available from biology over the past several decades demonstrated that non-genetic factors and conditions such as gravity,temperature,population density and cultural experience could make powerful influences on the way organisms develop.Social and environmental factors,particularly cultural environment,exert the strongest influences on human behavior.Although evolutionary psychologists claim that they are interactionists,rather than genetic determinists,they are in fact hereditism,because they place more weight on genetic factors and environmental influences are considered secondary.
RETHINKING ABOUT THE UNITY AND DISUNITY IN WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY
有关西方心理学分裂与整合问题的再思考

Ye Haosheng,
叶浩生

心理学报 , 2002,
Abstract: This paper discussed the unity and disunity of Western psychology. It was argued that the crisis of fragmentation in psychology was an irrefutable fact in that (a) there was not any common ground or a common starting point in psychology hitherto, and (b) different branches of psychology were threatening to break up the discipline of psychology. Psychology could be, however, a unified discipline because the conflicting components in psychology were compatible and commensurable. In approaching towards a unified discipline, there were two major obstacles: objectivism and relativism. Objectivism in psychology was a kind of totalitarianism because it tried to mimic the natural science model and led all psychologists to focus exclusively on objective methods. Objectivism repressed the voice of others and would be harmful to real unification in psychology. While objectivism was characterized as totalitarianism, relativism was more like egalitarianism. Under the guiding principle of "everything goes", relativism in psychology argued that diversified theories, conflicting ideas and competing communities should be considered as equal because they were all valid relative to the context and the culture from which they emerged. But the truth was that relativism encouraged diversity and pluralism without setting up any common ground and hence resulted in an exacerbation of the fragmentation of psychology. It was suggested that the unification of psychology should allow diversified theories, ideas, opinions and methods to coexist, provided that they were founded on a common ground. Psychology, in the author's opinion, should take systems theory as its guideline in order to be a unified discipline.
SEPARATION AND UNIFICATION OF THE TWO CULTURES IN WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY
西方心理学中两种文化的分裂及其整合

Ye Haosheng,
叶浩生

心理学报 , 1999,
Abstract: 金布尔的研究证实西方心理学中的“科学”与“人文”两种文化倾向的存在。科学主义的盛行和对经的不满与反动,实证主义,现象学和释义学的影响,学派和组织的门户之见是心理不中形成两种文化的主要原因;自然科学模式与人文科学模式的对立,方法中心对问题中心,价值中立说对价值负荷说是心理学中两种文化对立和分裂的主要表现。
Theoretical Psychology in a Post-Empiricist Era
后经验主义时代的理论心理学

Ye Haosheng,
叶浩生

心理学报 , 2007,
Abstract: With the progressive undermining of empirical positivism, psychology is now entering a post-empiricist era. New understanding has been taken on the relationship between theory and observation. Theory is no more a second-class enterprise psychologists make in spare time after completing the difficult empirical researches. Rather, theory is active and empirical facts are meaningful only when explained by corresponding theories. On this account, theory does not come from the generalization and induction of empirical facts; instead theory is a social construct and is invented by people in a particular culture and society. In addition, theory in the post-empiricist era is not a finished product. Theory is only provisional, and merely a tool that makes communication easier. In the empiricist era, the philosophical fundamentals of theoretical psychology are empiricism and positivism. But in the post-empiricist era, theoretical psychology is based on Kuhn's theory of paradigm, Husserl's phenomenology, hermeneutics and social constructionism. All the doctrines have stood as the critical counter to the empiricist tradition. Kuhn claimed that a paradigm is in essence a theoretical framework that dictates which is and is not a fact. Therefore, theory is very important in scientific activities. The phenomenological tradition emphasizes the metaphysical method which is a kind of theoretical thinking. The hermeneutic perspective criticizes the empiricist view that understanding can be derived from observation. It has laid the groundwork for what is commonly regarded as interpretive science. According to this perspective, the study of psychological phenomena is irreducibly interpretive. Interpretation is also a way of theoretical thinking. Therefore, hermeneutics can be a support of theoretical psychology. Social constructionism argues that no theoretical views can warrant its own truth either with evidence or empirical data, for all the theories are social construction and we have no way to validate these claims. Psychological phenomena are no exception. Therefore theoretical thinking is needed to facilitate the capacity of theory construction. Due to the demise of the empiricist standards for evaluating theoretical positions, we need alternative criteria. The standard of conceptual logic is one of them. Evaluation of a theory does not always need the support of empirical evidences. Most problems that psychologists want to investigate can be analyzed with the help of logic. The second standard that can be used is value and ideology. For empiricism, good science should be value-free, and thus ideological evaluation should not be involved in scientific investigation. However, scholars have become increasingly aware of the relationship between science and society and culture, and have reached the conclusion that there is actually no scientifically neutral theory. Therefore, the value and ideological standard can be taken as a useful criterion for theoretical psych
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