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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 168972 matches for " Yawson Alfred E "
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Who is utilizing anti-retroviral therapy in Ghana: An analysis of ART service utilization
Dako-Gyeke Phyllis,Snow Rachel,Yawson Alfred E
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-11-62
Abstract: Introduction The global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV patients has led to concerns regarding inequities in utilization of ART services in resource-limited contexts. In this paper, we describe regional and sex differentials in the distribution of ART among adult HIV patients in Ghana. We highlight the need for interventions to address the gender-based and geographic inequities related to the utilization of ART services in Ghana. Methods We reviewed National AIDS/STIs Control Program’s ART service provision records from January 2003 through December 2010, extracting data on adults aged 15+ who initiated ART in Ghana over a period of eight years. Data on the number of patients on treatment, year of enrollment, sex, and region were obtained and compared. Results The number of HIV patients receiving ART in Ghana increased more than 200-fold from 197 in 2003, to over 45,000 in 2010. However, for each of six continuous years (2005-2010) males comprised approximately one-third of adults newly enrolled on ART. As ART coverage has expanded in Ghana, the proportion of males receiving ART declined from 41.7% in 2004 to 30.1% in 2008 and to 27.6% in 2010. Also, there is disproportionate regional ART utilization across the country. Some regions report ART enrollment lower than their percent share of number of HIV infected persons in the country. Conclusions Attention to the comparatively fewer males initiating ART, as well as disproportionate regional ART utilization is urgently needed. All forms of gender-based inequities in relation to HIV care must be addressed in order for Ghana to realize successful outcomes at the population level. Policy makers in Ghana and elsewhere need to understand how gender-based health inequities in relation to HIV care affect both men and women and begin to design appropriate interventions.
Estimation of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure in a Large Teaching Hospital in Ghana  [PDF]
Ebenezer Owusu Darkwa, Frank Boni, Eugenia Lamptey, Yaw Adu-Gyamfi, Christian Owoo, Robert Djagbletey, Alfred Edwin Yawson, Edmund Ayesu, Daniel Akwanfo Yaw Sottie
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2015.512042
Abstract: Background: Maintenance of optimal Endotracheal Tube cuff Pressure (ETTcP) in anaesthetic practice reduces cuff pressure complications. Aneroid manometers for measurement of ETTcP are not widely available in Ghana, hence anaesthesia providers estimate ETTcP according to their experience. The study assessed ETTcP obtained from estimation techniques between anaesthesia providers at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH). It also evaluated the Volume of Air Required (VAR) to obtain an acceptable cuff inflation pressure for sizes 7.0 and 8.0 mm adult endotracheal tubes used at the hospital, and the effect of patient’s age, weight and height on this volume. Methods: Eighty-one patients who underwent general anaesthesia were recruited. ETTcP was measured using an aneroid manometer via a three-way tap. After full cuff deflation, the cuff was refilled with air until an ETTcP of 20 cm H2O was obtained. Independent t-test was used to measure the statistical variations in the ETTcP using estimation techniques in relation to recommended levels as well as the significant difference of mean VAR to obtain a cuff pressure of 20 cm H2O. Grouped t-test was used to determine significant differences in ETTcP between anaesthesia providers using estimation techniques. Results: Mean ETTcP obtained from estimation techniques was (61.87, 73.79) cm H2O. The mean ETTcP measured for Physician and Nurse Anaesthetists were 65.36 cm H20 and 69.52 cm H2O respectively. The mean VAR to achieve an ETTcP of 20 cm H2O for endotracheal tube sizes 7.0 mm and 8.0 mm were 3.90 ± 1.13 mls and 4.55 ± 0.95 mls respectively. Age and weight significantly influenced the VAR to achieve a cuff pressure of 20 cm H2O, however, height did not. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that cuff pressures obtained by estimation techniques were generally higher than the recommended average with no significant difference between anaesthesia providers. However, in the absence of an aneroid manometer, ETTcP of tube sizes 7.0 mm and 8.0 mm can be safely approximated to the recommended levels with predetermined inflation volumes.
Alfred E. Kellermann
Romanian Journal of European Affairs (RJEA) , 2004,
Abstract: EU Enlargement is a consequence of the success story of the creation of the European Communities, as many applicant countries were attracted to the new legal order based on the rule of law, rather than to an order or disorder based on the rule of politics. As from May 1st 2004, the EU enlargement, unprecedented in its size, marks a historic milestone for the European Union and its Member States, and also for the whole continent. Given this new context, the EU has to find and define new cooperation partnerships with its neighbours. A major partner, not to be neglected in this new policy is by all means Russia. The first Summit between the enlarged EU and Russia held in Moscow on 21 May 2004 was the first high-level meeting of the 25 EU and Russia following the successful conclusion of negotiations between the European Commission and Russia on the extension of the EU-Russia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) to the ten new EU Member States. The Summit calls for the reinforcement of EU-Russia relations via the creation of Four Common Spaces: a common economic space (with specific reference to environment and energy); a common space of Freedom, Security and Justice; a field of external security; as well as a space of research and education including culture. The next step will be to define shared priorities and concrete measures for each of the Four Common Spaces in a mutually agreed Action Plan.
Alfred E. Kellermann
Romanian Journal of European Affairs (RJEA) , 2006,
Abstract: The developments of the civil service and administrative reform in Central and Easter European countries and in Russia are more or less similar. For the Central and Eastern European countries explicitly EU Membership is mentioned as an incentive for reform, the accession criteria have even been enlarged with horizontal administrative capacities, whereas for Russia there are no explicit references to incentives for reform.
Conditioned Behavior Among Termites (Isoptera)
Alfred E. Emerson
Psyche , 1933, DOI: 10.1155/1933/72040
Kalotermes Milleri, a New Species of Termite From the Florida Keysand Jamaica (Isoptera, Kalotermitid )
Alfred E. Emerson
Psyche , 1943, DOI: 10.1155/1943/87513
Cretaceous Insects From Labrador 3. a New Genus and Species ofTermite. (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae)
Alfred E. Emerson
Psyche , 1967, DOI: 10.1155/1967/19746
Alfred E. Kellermann
Romanian Journal of European Affairs (RJEA) , 2002,
Abstract: In most candidate countries, enlargement will contribute most likely to the constitutional modernization of the country. The EU accession will be a fundamental landmark in this respect. This will especially concern the implications of their membership for the national constitutional provisions concerning, among others, the principle of the transfer of the exercise of certain state powers to the EU deriving from national state sovereignty, supremacy, primacy, priority, direct applicability and direct effect of community law, specific provisions of the EU and EC Treaty regarding European citizenship, voting rights etc., as well as specific provisions in national constitutions which contradict the acquis communautaire, such as acquisition of land and realestate by non-residents, extradition of own nationals etc. This paper outlines some of the major problems of a new constitutional design in accession countries.
Applicability of the P19CL6 cells as a model of cardiomyocytes – a transcriptome analysis  [PDF]
Iraj Khodadadi, Nick J. Plant, Vassilis Mersinias, Alfred E. Thumser
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.21005
Abstract: The P19CL6 cell-line, a clone of the P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cell-line, has been exten-sively used as a model for cardiomyocytes as these cells can be differentiated into a cardio-myocyte phenotype upon incubation with di-methyl sulfoxide. Uniquely, these cells can be observed to “beat” when monitored by mi-croscopy. We started investigating the response of P19CL6 cells to fatty acids, but highly vari-able results lead us to investigate the phenotype of the P19CL6 cells in more depth. In this study we demonstrated that the P19CL6 cells are re-sponsive to adrenaline, but loose the “beating” phenotype after 16 passages in culture. Analysis of specific mRNA transcripts indicated that the P19CL6 cells express both cardiac- and skeletal muscle-specific genes, while global analysis of microarray data showed clear differences be-tween the P19CL6 cells and cardiac tissue of embryonic or adult origin. In conclusion, our observations suggest caution in the use of the P19CL6 cells as a model of cardiomyocytes unless rigorous validation for the intended analysis has been undertaken.
Climate change and food security: The role of biotechnology
W Quaye, RM Yawson, ES Ayeh, I Yawson
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Several climate change related factors including temperature increases, changes in rainfall patterns and outbreak of pests and diseases negatively affect agricultural productivity and food security. Climate change effects significantly increase production risk and rural vulnerability, particularly in regions that already suffer from chronic soil and water resource scarcity or high exposure to climatic extremes, such as droughts and flooding. The effects of climate change on agriculture may depend not only on changing climate conditions, but also on the agricultural sector’s ability to adapt through changes in technology and demand for food. Significant proportions of the growing populations in developing countries derive their livelihoods from agriculture and are, therefore, vulnerable to climate change effects. The task of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015, as per Millennium Development Goals, will require both regional and global research efforts and concrete actions among which biotechnology adoption plays a key role. Advances in biotechnology can lead to cutting-edge technologies in agriculture. However, sub-Saharan Africa faces an uphill task with regard to the adoption and use of agricultural biotechnology. The potential to improve the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers is a strong incentive to meet the challenge. This paper reviews research work on climate change in relation to increasing food insecurity situation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and the significance of plant biotechnology in reversing the disturbing food insecurity trends on the continent. To move plant biotechnology forward, the paper recommends that African countries institutionalize effective bio-safety regulatory frameworks, and commit resources to capacity building and provision of infrastructure for biotechnology development. Funding of Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) related research into tropical and sub-tropical staple foods, suitable for the needs of small-scale farmers in SSA countries, is strongly recommended. There is also the need for researchers to engage in effective education and communication with the general public so as to enhance adoption of biotechnological products in Africa.
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