Abstract:
The discovery of accelerating expansion of the universe has led us to take the dramatic view that our universe may be one of the many universes in which low energy physical laws take different forms: the multiverse. I explain why/how this view is supported both observationally and theoretically, especially by string theory and eternal inflation. I then describe how quantum mechanics plays a crucial role in understanding the multiverse, even at the largest distance scales. The resulting picture leads to a revolutionary change of our view of spacetime and gravity, and completely unifies the paradigm of the eternally inflating multiverse with the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. The picture also provides a solution to a long-standing problem in eternal inflation, called the measure problem, which I briefly describe.

Abstract:
We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. [1,2]. By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static---in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, including the fact that we observe that time flows in a definite direction. Selecting the multiverse state is ultimately boiled down to finding normalizable solutions to certain zero-eigenvalue equations, analogous to the case of the hydrogen atom. Unambiguous physical predictions would then follow, according to the rules of quantum mechanics.

Abstract:
The supersymmetric flavor problem is elegantly solved by the decoupling scenario, where the first-two generation sfermions are much heavier than the third generation ones. However, such a mass spectrum is not stable against renormalization group evolution and causes extreme fine-tuning of the electroweak symmetry breaking. We present a mechanism which stabilizes the mass spectrum with such a large splitting, by introducing extra vector-like chiral multiplets of masses comparable to the first-two generation sfermions. The explicit models are constructed in a framework of the anomalous U(1) SUSY-breaking model.

Abstract:
A five dimensional supersymmetric model is constructed which reduces to the one Higgs-doublet standard model at low energies. The radiative correction to the Higgs potential is finite and calculable, allowing the Higgs mass prediction of 127 \pm 8 GeV. The physical reasons for this finiteness are discussed in detail. The masses of the superparticles and the Kaluza-Klein excitations are also predicted. The lightest superparticle is a top squark of mass 197 \pm 20 GeV.

Abstract:
We consider the scenario where all the couplings in the theory are strong at the cut-off scale, in the context of higher dimensional grand unified field theories where the unified gauge symmetry is broken by an orbifold compactification. In this scenario, the non-calculable correction to gauge unification from unknown ultraviolet physics is naturally suppressed by the large volume of the extra dimension, and the threshold correction is dominated by a calculable contribution from Kaluza-Klein towers that gives the values for \sin^2\theta_w and \alpha_s in good agreement with low-energy data. The threshold correction is reliably estimated despite the fact that the theory is strongly coupled at the cut-off scale. A realistic 5d supersymmetric SU(5) model is presented as an example, where rapid d=6 proton decay is avoided by putting the first generation matter in the 5d bulk.

Abstract:
Quantum mechanics introduces the concept of probability at the fundamental level, yielding the measurement problem. On the other hand, recent progress in cosmology has led to the "multiverse" picture, in which our observed universe is only one of the many, bringing an apparent arbitrariness in defining probabilities, called the measure problem. In this paper, we discuss how these two problems are intimately related with each other, developing a complete picture for quantum measurement and cosmological histories in the quantum mechanical universe. On one hand, quantum mechanics eliminates the arbitrariness of defining probabilities in the multiverse, as discussed in arXiv:1104.2324. On the other hand, the multiverse allows for understanding why we observe an ordered world obeying consistent laws of physics, by providing an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. This results in the irreversibility of quantum measurement, despite the fact that the evolution of the multiverse state is unitary. In order to describe the cosmological dynamics correctly, we need to identify the structure of the Hilbert space for a system with gravity. We argue that in order to keep spacetime locality, the Hilbert space for dynamical spacetime must be defined only in restricted spacetime regions: in and on the (stretched) apparent horizon as viewed from a fixed reference frame. This requirement arises from eliminating all the redundancies and overcountings in a general relativistic, global spacetime description of nature. It is responsible for horizon complementarity as well as the "observer dependence" of horizons/spacetime---these phenomena arise to represent changes of the reference frame in the relevant Hilbert space. This can be viewed as an extension of the Poincare transformation in the quantum gravitational context, as the Lorentz transformation is viewed as an extension of the Galilean transformation.

Abstract:
We present a framework in which well-defined predictions are obtained in an eternally inflating multiverse, based on the principles of quantum mechanics. We show that the entire multiverse is described purely from the viewpoint of a single "observer," who describes the world as a quantum state defined on his/her past light cones bounded by the (stretched) apparent horizons. We find that quantum mechanics plays an essential role in regulating infinities. The framework is "gauge invariant," i.e. predictions do not depend on how spacetime is parametrized, as it should be in a theory of quantum gravity. Our framework provides a fully unified treatment of quantum measurement processes and the multiverse. We conclude that the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics are the same. Other important implications include: global spacetime can be viewed as a derived concept; the multiverse is a transient phenomenon during the world relaxing into a supersymmetric Minkowski state. We also present a theory of "initial conditions" for the multiverse. By extrapolating our framework to the extreme, we arrive at a picture that the entire multiverse is a fluctuation in the stationary, fractal "mega-multiverse," in which an infinite sequence of multiverse productions occurs. The framework discussed here does not suffer from problems/paradoxes plaguing other measures proposed earlier, such as the youngness paradox, the Boltzmann brain problem, and a peculiar "end" of time.

Abstract:
We present a simple scheme for constructing models that achieve successful gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. In addition to our previous work [1] that proposed drastically simplified models using metastable vacua of supersymmetry breaking in vector-like theories, we show there are many other successful models using various types of supersymmetry breaking mechanisms that rely on enhanced low-energy U(1)_R symmetries. In models where supersymmetry is broken by elementary singlets, one needs to assume U(1)_R violating effects are accidentally small, while in models where composite fields break supersymmetry, emergence of approximate low-energy U(1)_R symmetries can be understood simply on dimensional grounds. Even though the scheme still requires somewhat small parameters to sufficiently suppress gravity mediation, we discuss their possible origins due to dimensional transmutation. The scheme accommodates a wide range of the gravitino mass to avoid cosmological problems.

Abstract:
The suppression of flavor and CP violation in supersymmetric theories may be due to the mechanism responsible for the structure of the Yukawa couplings. We study model independently the compatibility between low energy flavor and CP constraints and observability of superparticles at the LHC, assuming a generic correlation between the Yukawa couplings and the supersymmetry breaking parameters. We find that the superpotential operators that generate scalar trilinear interactions are generically problematic. We discuss several ways in which this tension is naturally avoided. In particular, we focus on several frameworks in which the dangerous operators are naturally absent. These frameworks can be combined with many theories of flavor, including those with (flat or warped) extra dimensions, strong dynamics, or flavor symmetries. We show that the resulting theories can avoid all the low energy constraints while keeping the superparticles light. The intergenerational mass splittings among the sfermions can reflect the structure of the underlying flavor theory, and can be large enough to be measurable at the LHC. Detailed observations of the superparticle spectrum may thus provide new handles on the origin of the flavor structure of the standard model.

Abstract:
Gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking is drastically simplified using generic superpotentials without U(1)_R symmetry by allowing metastable vacua.