Abstract:
A notion of branch-width, which generalizes the one known for graphs, can be defined for matroids. We first give a proof of the polynomial time model-checking of monadic second-order formulas on representable matroids of bounded branch-width, by reduction to monadic second-order formulas on trees. This proof is much simpler than the one previously known. We also provide a link between our logical approach and a grammar that allows to build matroids of bounded branch-width. Finally, we introduce a new class of non-necessarily representable matroids, described by a grammar and on which monadic second-order formulas can be checked in linear time.

Abstract:
We study the problem of generating monomials of a polynomial in the context of enumeration complexity. In this setting, the complexity measure is the delay between two solutions and the total time. We present two new algorithms for restricted classes of polynomials, which have a good delay and the same global running time as the classical ones. Moreover they are simple to describe, use little evaluation points and one of them is parallelizable. We introduce three new complexity classes, TotalPP, IncPP and DelayPP, which are probabilistic counterparts of the most common classes for enumeration problems, hoping that randomization will be a tool as strong for enumeration as it is for decision. Our interpolation algorithms proves that a lot of interesting problems are in these classes like the enumeration of the spanning hypertrees of a 3-uniform hypergraph. Finally we give a method to interpolate a degree 2 polynomials with an acceptable (incremental) delay. We also prove that finding a specified monomial in a degree 2 polynomial is hard unless RP = NP. It suggests that there is no algorithm with a delay as good (polynomial) as the one we achieve for multilinear polynomials.

Abstract:
In this paper we address the problem of generating all elements obtained by the saturation of an initial set by some operations. More precisely, we prove that we can generate the closure by polymorphisms of a boolean relation with a polynomial delay. This implies for instance that we can compute with polynomial delay the closure of a family of sets by any set of "set operations" (e.g. by union, intersection, difference, symmetric difference$\dots$). To do so, we prove that for any set of operations $\mathcal{F}$, one can decide in polynomial time whether an elements belongs to the closure by $\mathcal{F}$ of a family of sets. When the relation is over a domain larger than two elements, our generic enumeration method fails for some cases, since the associated decision problem is $NP$-hard and we provide an alternative algorithm.

Abstract:
The optimal value computation for turned-based stochastic games with reachability objectives, also known as simple stochastic games, is one of the few problems in $NP \cap coNP$ which are not known to be in $P$. However, there are some cases where these games can be easily solved, as for instance when the underlying graph is acyclic. In this work, we try to extend this tractability to several classes of games that can be thought as "almost" acyclic. We give some fixed-parameter tractable or polynomial algorithms in terms of different parameters such as the number of cycles or the size of the minimal feedback vertex set.

Abstract:
Polynomial identity testing and arithmetic circuit lower bounds are two central questions in algebraic complexity theory. It is an intriguing fact that these questions are actually related. One of the authors of the present paper has recently proposed a "real {\tau}-conjecture" which is inspired by this connection. The real {\tau}-conjecture states that the number of real roots of a sum of products of sparse univariate polynomials should be polynomially bounded. It implies a superpolynomial lower bound on the size of arithmetic circuits computing the permanent polynomial. In this paper we show that the real {\tau}-conjecture holds true for a restricted class of sums of products of sparse polynomials. This result yields lower bounds for a restricted class of depth-4 circuits: we show that polynomial size circuits from this class cannot compute the permanent, and we also give a deterministic polynomial identity testing algorithm for the same class of circuits.

Abstract:
We present an algorithm which computes the multilinear factors of bivariate lacunary polynomials. It is based on a new Gap Theorem which allows to test whether a polynomial of the form P(X,X+1) is identically zero in time polynomial in the number of terms of P(X,Y). The algorithm we obtain is more elementary than the one by Kaltofen and Koiran (ISSAC'05) since it relies on the valuation of polynomials of the previous form instead of the height of the coefficients. As a result, it can be used to find some linear factors of bivariate lacunary polynomials over a field of large finite characteristic in probabilistic polynomial time.

Abstract:
We present a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm which computes the multilinear factors of multivariate lacunary polynomials over number fields. It is based on a new Gap theorem which allows to test whether $P(X)=\sum_{j=1}^k a_j X^{\alpha_j}(vX+t)^{\beta_j}(uX+w)^{\gamma_j}$ is identically zero in polynomial time. Previous algorithms for this task were based on Gap Theorems expressed in terms of the height of the coefficients. Our Gap Theorem is based on the valuation of the polynomial and is valid for any field of characteristic zero. As a consequence we obtain a faster and more elementary algorithm. Furthermore, we can partially extend the algorithm to other situations, such as absolute and approximate factorizations. We also give a version of our Gap Theorem valid for fields of large characteristic, and deduce a randomized polynomial-time algorithm to compute multilinear factors with at least three monomials of multivariate lacunary polynomials of finite fields of large characteristic. We provide $\mathsf{NP}$-hardness results to explain our inability to compute binomial factors.

Abstract:
In this paper we describe an algorithm which generates all colored planar maps with a good minimum sparsity from simple motifs and rules to connect them. An implementation of this algorithm is available and is used by chemists who want to quickly generate all sound molecules they can obtain by mixing some basic components.

Abstract:
Natural starters have been extensively used for many centuries to make many different fermented food products from different raw materials: Milk, meat, roots, vegetables, etc. The industrialisation of food production at the end of the 19th century necessitated the use of regular selected starters to standardize the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. As a consequence, during the 20th century, there was a decline in the use of natural starters in Western countries except in the production of local cheeses or sourdough breads. The beginning of this new millennium has witnessed a deep change in consumer demand, in pursuit of quality, safety and pleasure. In this context, natural starters could, in the future, play an important role in the development of fermented products. However, food producers and researchers have first to cope with fundamental problems in the understanding of these complex ecosystems. The dynamic evolution of the microbial population inside the natural starter (its resilience, its genetic and physiological aptitudes) and the consequences on the product are still partially unknown. This document reviews a broad range of articles concerning the use of natural starters with a specific focus on cheeses and breads, and discusses the major stakes for local food production and the consumption of typical products.

Abstract:
the article examines the daily spatial practices of the inhabitants of a socially heterogeneous mexico city's central neighborhood. this sector has more and more middle class population. the goal is to understand what the role of the social class is and the role of the other criteria such as sex, age and residential trajectory within the definition of the way of life of the people who live in the same neighborhood. the study offers some contribution to the conclusions of some publications on middle class and it also aims to participate in the debate on segregation in the mexican capital.