Abstract:
One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the nonlocal multi-particle interference observable in joint-detection of distant particle-detectors. Ghost imaging is one of such phenomena. Two types of ghost imaging have been experimentally demonstrated since 1995. Type-one ghost imaging uses entangled photon pairs as the light source. The nonlocal point-to-point image-forming correlation is the result of a constructive-destructive superposition among a large number of biphoton amplitudes, a nonclassical entity corresponding to different yet indistinguishable alternative ways of producing a joint-detction event between distant photodetectors. Type-two ghost imaging uses chaotic-thermal light. The type-two image-forming correlation is the result of interferences between paired two-photon amplitudes, corresponding to two different yet indistinguishable alternative ways of triggering a join-detection event by two independent photons. A great deal of confusion about ghost imaging comes from "ghost shadow". Similar to x-ray photography, a ghost shadow can be made in coincidences by "blocking-partial blocking-unblocking" of either co-rotating laser beams or classically correlated "speckles". "Ghost shadow" is indeed a classical phenomenon. The physics of ghost imaging, however, is fundamentally different. This article is aimed at exploring the nonlocal two-photon interference nature of ghost imaging.

Abstract:
One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distant particles. Although questions regarding fundamental issues of quantum theory still exist, quantum entanglement has started to play important roles in practical engineering applications. Quantum imaging is one of these exciting areas. Quantum imaging has demonstrated two peculiar features: (1) reproducing "ghost" images in a "nonlocal" manner, and (2) enhancing the spatial resolution of imaging beyond the diffraction limit. In this article, we start with the review of classical imaging to establish the basic concepts and formalisms of imaging. We then analyze two-photon imaging with particular emphasis on the physics of spatial resolution enhancement and the "ghost" imaging phenomenon.

Abstract:
One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distant particles. In an entangled EPR two-particle system, the value of the momentum (position) for neither single subsystem is determined. However, if one of the subsystems is measured to have a certain momentum (position), the other subsystem is determined to have a unique corresponding value, despite the distance between them. This peculiar behavior of an entangled quantum system has surprisingly been observed experimentally in two-photon temporal and spatial correlation measurements, such as ghost interference and ghost imaging. This article addresses the fundamental concerns behind these experimental observations and to explore the nonclassical nature of two-photon superposition by emphasizing the physics of 2 is not 1 + 1.

Abstract:
Quantum imaging has been demonstrated since 1995 by using entangled photon pairs. The physics community named these experiments "ghost image", "quantum crypto-FAX", "ghost interference", etc. Recently, Bennink et al. simulated the "ghost" imaging experiment by two co-rotating k-vector correlated lasers. Did the classical simulation simulate the quantum aspect of the "ghost" image? We wish to provide an answer. In fact, the simulation is very similar to a historical model of local realism. The goal of this article is to clarify the different physics behind the two types of experiments and address the fundamental issues of quantum theory that EPR was concerned with since 1935.

Abstract:
We report on a delayed-choice quantum eraser experiment based on a two-photon imaging scheme using entangled photon pairs. After the detection of a photon which passed through a double-slit, a random delayed choice is made to erase or not erase the which-path information by the measurement of its distant entangled twin; the particle-like and wave-like behavior of the photon are then recorded simultaneously and respectively by only one set of joint detection devices. The present eraser takes advantage of two-photon imaging. The complete which-path information of a photon is transferred to its distant entangled twin through a "ghost" image. The choice is made on the Fourier transform plane of the ghost image between reading "complete information" or "partial information" of the double-path.

Abstract:
In this paper we study the resolution of images illuminated by sources composed of $N+1$ photons in which one non-degenerate photon is entangled with $N$ degenerate photons. The $N$ degenerate photons illuminate an object and are collected by an $N$ photon detector. The signal from the $N$ photon detector is measured in coincidence with the non-degenerate photon giving rise to a ghost image. We discuss the case of three photons in various configurations and generalize to $N+1$. Using the Rayleigh criterion, we find that the system may give an improvement in resolution by a factor of $N$ compared to using a classical source. For the case that the $N$-photon number detector is a point detector, a coherent image is obtained. If the $N$-photon detector is a bucket detector, the image is incoherent. The visibility of the image in both cases is 1. In the opposite case in which the non-degenerate photon is scattered by the object, then, using an $N$-photon point detector may reduce the Airy disk by a factor of $N$.

Abstract:
The study of entangled states has greatly improved the basic understanding about two-photon interferometry. Two-photon interference is not the interference of two photons but the result of superposition among indistinguishable two-photon amplitudes. The concept of two-photon amplitude, however, has generally been restricted to the case of entangled photons. In this letter we report an experimental study that may extend this concept to the general case of independent photons. The experiment also shows interesting practical applications regarding the possibility of obtaining high resolution interference patterns with thermal sources.

Abstract:
An entangled pair of photons (1 and 2) are emitted to opposite directions. A narrow slit is placed in the path of photon 1 to provide precise knowledge of its position on the $y$ axis and this also determines the precise $y$ position of its twin, photon 2, due to quantum entanglement. Is photon 2 going to experience a greater uncertainty in momentum, i.e., a greater $\Delta p_{y}$, due to the precise knowledge of its position $y$? The experimental data shows $\Delta y\Delta p_{y}<\hbar $ for photon 2. Can this recent realization of the historical thought experiment of Karl Popper signal a violation of the uncertainty principle?

Abstract:
Thermal (or pseudo-thermal) radiation has been recently proposed for imaging and interference types of experiments to simulate entangled states. We report an experimental study on the momentum correlation properties of a pseudo-thermal field in the photon counting regime. The characterization and understanding of such a light source in the context of two photon physics, especially its similarities and differences compared to entangled two-photon states, is useful in gaining knowledge of entanglement and may help us to assess the real potential of applications of chaotic light in this context.

Abstract:
This experiment reports a nontrivial third-order temporal correlation of chaotic-thermal light in which the randomly radiated thermal light is observed to have a 6-times greater chance of being captured by three individual photodetectors simultaneously than that of being captured by three photodetectors at different times (separated by the coherent time of pseudo-thermal light), indicating a "three-photon bunching" effect. The nontrivial correlation of thermal light is the result of multi-photon interference.