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Recognition of Japanese Phonographic Kana (Hiragana) and Logographic Kanji Characters by Passive Finger Tracing  [PDF]
Hikari Yamashita
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.53032
Abstract:

The present study assessed the ability of normal Japanese adults to recognize kanji and hiragana characters through passive finger tracing without visual cues. We tested fifty-six right-handed Japanese university students using the left or right hand. Participants recognized approximately 50% of 44 kanji characters, regardless of the hand they used. The results are consistent with previous findings in Chinese speakers. In contrast, the average correct response to the 44 hiragana was almost 80%, again irrespective of hand. The results are discussed in terms of differential processing systems for Japanese writing and of differential cerebral hemispheric specializations.

Optimal Investment Strategy for Kinked Utility Maximization: Covered Call Option Strategy  [PDF]
Miwaka Yamashita
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2014.42006
Abstract:

This paper describes optimal investment strategies for kinked utility functions. One example is a CRRA utility function with a kink at a maximum wealth, which leads a covered call “like” strategy and the other is a CRRA utility function with a kink at a minimum wealth, which leads a protective put “like” strategy. This paper introduces analytic mathematical solutions providing a mathematical explanation of a dual utility where Black-Sholes assumption is utilized in the solutions. The intuitive solutions are clear for cases of those kinked utilities but minute mathematical explanation is described. Also a numerical simulation is performed for a covered call like strategy case.

Link Stress Reduction against Bursty Arrivals of Content Requests  [PDF]
Kenichi Yamashita, Kazumasa Oida
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.55036
Abstract: Content delivery networks are designed to extend the end-to-end transport capability of the Internet to cope with increases in video traffic. For further improvement, bursty request arrivals should be efficiently addressed. As opposed to previous approaches, in which the best client-server pair is individually selected (individual optimization), this paper proposes an algorithm for dealing with simultaneous arrival requests, in which client-server pairs are selected such that all requests receive good service (social optimization). The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of the closest algorithm, an individual optimization algorithm, under the condition that a large number of requests arrive simultaneously. The evaluation criterion is the worst link stress, which is the largest number of streams per link. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm is effective for large-scale networks and that the closest algorithm does not provide near-optimal solutions, especially when all requests arrive in a small part of the network or when there are many servers.
The Validity of the Reduction of Disposable Plastic Checkout Bags in Japan  [PDF]
Masakazu Yamashita, Daichi Toyofuku
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.39118
Abstract: This study examined the effect of reducing disposable plastic checkout bags used in supermarkets, convenience stores, and so on in Japan. Considering that even when these checkout bags are abolished, alternative waste bags should be newly produced, because these checkout bags have been reused as household waste bags so far, and the corresponding amount of oil is still necessary to produce them, the amount of oil saved by this bag reduction was found to be 0.2 L/person/year at most. Further, it was demonstrated that the necessity to purchase substitute bags may increase the household and financial burden on consumers.
Possibility of the Benzoic Acids Formation by Oxidation of Benzyl Chlorides in the Sand  [PDF]
Masakazu Yamashita, Masato Hata
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.41014
Abstract:

Seeking the possibility of the formation of benzoic acids from benzyl halides in natural soil, a model oxidation reaction of the halides was carried out in the presence of water and soil in an open air under UV light irradiation. Addition of TiO2 to soil raised the yield of the acid, implying such a metal oxide plays a real catalytic role in this oxidation. By these supplementary experiments, one of the possibilities for the formation of benzoic acids in natural soil from benzyl chlorides was supported.

Dust Resulting from Tire Wear and the Risk of Health Hazards  [PDF]
Masakazu Yamashita, Shohei Yamanaka
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.46059
Abstract:

The present study examined the effects of air pollutants on people’s health, focusing on dust produced from automobile tires while cars drive on roads. The annual volume of dust resulting from tire wear, calculated based on the number of automobiles registered in Japan, was 1747245.4 m3. To put it simply, this translates to approximately 1.4 times the volume of the Tokyo Dome, a famous Japanese baseball stadium. Particulate substances are categorized into three groups depending on their size, and dust resulting from tire wear is classified into the coarse particle mode along with mold spores, pollen, and dust produced from brake pads. This study examined whether or not tire dust causes health damage similarly to pollen, a particulate substance in the same group. There were 38/cm2 dust particles resulting from tire wear on a busy road in Osaka Prefecture, and this number was larger than that of cedar pollen/cm2 (35), a cause of hay fever, identified in Hokkaido. The results suggest that tire dust may also adversely affect the health of people if any of its constituents has a toxicity or causes allergies.

Phonemic Awareness and Reading Comprehension among Japanese Adult Learners of English  [PDF]
Lisa Yoshikawa, Junko Yamashita
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.44039
Abstract: Phonemic awareness (PA) accounts for individual differences in early reading achievement in English as a first language (L1), but its effect generally fades with age. However, in English as a second language (L2), PA may still explain variation in reading ability among the adult population, depending on the readers’ L1 background. We examined the role of PA in the reading comprehension of L1-Japanese readers to closely examine the relationship between PA and reading comprehension. A path analysis revealed that PA makes an indirect contribution to reading comprehension through decoding, which along with vocabulary knowledge directly supports reading comprehension. The present study provides evidence for a role, albeit indirect, played by PA in L2-English reading by L1-Japanese adult readers, and thus lends support to the understanding of the importance of fundamental phonological processing in L2 reading.
PPAR-Independent Effects of PPAR Ligands on Cysteinyl Leukotriene Production in Mast Cells
Masamichi Yamashita
PPAR Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/293538
Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligands (Wy-14,643, and fenofibrate) and PPAR ligands (troglitazone and ciglitazone) inhibit antigen-induced cysteinyl leukotriene production in immunoglobulin E-treated mast cells. The inhibitory effect of these ligands on cysteinyl leukotriene production is quite strong and is almost equivalent to that of the anti-asthma compound zileuton. To develop new aspects for anti-asthma drugs the pharmacological target of these compounds should be clarified. Experiments with bone-marrow-derived mast cells from PPAR knockout mice and pharmacological inhibitors of PPAR suggest that the inhibitory effects of these ligands are independent of PPARs and . The mechanisms of the PPAR-independent inhibition by these agents on cysteinyl leukotriene production are discussed in this review.
Ion Channel Activities in Neural Stem Cells of the Neuroepithelium
Masayuki Yamashita
Stem Cells International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/247670
Abstract: During the embryonic development of the central nervous system, neuroepithelial cells act as neural stem cells. They undergo interkinetic nuclear movements along their apico-basal axis during the cell cycle. The neuroepithelial cell shows robust increases in the nucleoplasmic [Ca2+] in response to G protein-coupled receptor activation in S-phase, during which the nucleus is located in the basal region of the neuroepithelial cell. This response is caused by Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores, which are comprised of the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. The Ca2+ release leads to the activation of Ca2+ entry from the extracellular space, which is called capacitative, or store-operated Ca2+ entry. These movements of Ca2+ are essential for DNA synthesis during S-phase. Spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations also occur synchronously across the cells. This synchronization is mediated by voltage fluctuations in the membrane potential of the nuclear envelope due to Ca2+ release and the counter movement of K+ ions; the voltage fluctuation induces alternating current (AC), which is transmitted via capacitative electrical coupling to the neighboring cells. The membrane potential across the plasma membrane is stabilized through gap junction coupling by lowering the input resistance. Thus, stored Ca2+ ions are a key player in the maintenance of the cellular activity of neuroepithelial cells. 1. Introduction During the embryonic development of the central nervous system, cells in the neuroepithelium act as neural stem cells. The neuroepithelium forms the neural tube, from which the central nervous system including the spinal cord, retina, and brain is derived. The neuroepithelial cell has a polarized structure: the apical process faces the ventricle, and the furthest portion of the basal process makes contact with the basement membrane. This contact is necessary for the cell to undergo interkinetic nuclear movement along the apico-basal axis during the cell cycle [1–4]. Neuroepithelial cells in S-phase synthesize DNA in their basal region, followed by the movement of the soma towards the apical region prior to cell division during M-phase [3, 4]. To study ion channel activities in the neuroepithelial cell, the retinal neuroepithelium is a suitable model because the retina can be isolated from an optic cup at early stages of embryonic development. The neural tube evaginates laterally to form two optic vesicles, each of which invaginates to form an optic cup. The neuroepithelium on the inner wall of the optic cup becomes the retina. Figure 1 shows the
Grand Unified Theories and Higgs Physics
Yamashita, T.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: The grand unified theories are theoretically well motivated, but they typically have less direct indications on the low energy physics and it is not easy to test them. Here, we discuss a scenario of them which naturally solves the so-called doublet-triplet splitting problem and, at the same time, generally predicts characteristic collider phenomenology. Then, we may get a hint on the breaking of the grand unified symmetry at the on-going and next-generation collider experiments.
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