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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 952 matches for " Yahya Farhan "
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Morphometric Assessment of Wadi Wala Watershed, Southern Jordan Using ASTER (DEM) and GIS  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2017.92011
Abstract: Morphometric analysis is of vital concern to understand hydromophological processes in a given watershed, and thus, it is a priority for assessing water resources in drainage basins. A morphometric analysis was conducted to identify the drainage properties of Wadi Wala and the 23 fourth-order sub-basins. ASTER DEM data was employed to compile slope, elevation, and aspect maps. Arc GIS software was used to measure and calculate basic, derived and shape morphometric parameters. W. Wala is found to be a sixth-order drainage basin, and the drainage pattern is trellis to sub-trellis in the central and lower part of the catchment, whereas it is dendritic to sub-dendritic pattern in the southern and northern parts. The slopes of the catchment vary from 0° - 5° to >35° in slope categories. Tectonic uplifting and tilting, lithology, structure and rejuvenation are the major factors controlling morphological variation over the watershed. The recognized fault systems are chiefly controlling the drainage pattern, and the elongated shape of the sub-basins is attributed to dense lineaments in the central and eastern parts of the watershed. The Rb values for the entire catchment and the sub-catchments range from 2 to 7, with a mean of 4.55, which indicates the distortion of drainage pattern by geological structure. Hypsometric integral values are high for the W. Wala watershed and the sub-basins, where it ranges from 70% to 89%. High HI values indicate that drainage basins are at the youth-age stage of geomorphic development, and they are affected by tectonic uplifting, tilting, and the dominance of hillslope process. Variation in HI values is apparent between sub-basins located at the western part, or, the rejuvenated belt where HI values range from 85% to 89%. Whereas the HI values of the sub-basins located at the eastern part of the watershed, vary from 70% to 84%. Regression analysis reveals that R2 values, which represent the degree of control of driving parameters on HI are reasonably high for the height of local base level (m) and the mean height of sub-basins (m). Both parameters contribute 0.42 and 0.39 respectively (where the F-value is significant at 0.1% and 0.5% levels). Such results imply that the height of local base level (m), and the mean height (m) are the only morphometric driving parameters which have significant control on HI values in the W. Wala watershed. High annual soil loss and sediment load estimated recently, denote that the catchment is highly susceptible to surface erosion at present. Hence, the present study, and
A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach for Prioritization of Wadi Shueib Mini-Watersheds (Central Jordan) Based on Morphometric and Soil Erosion Susceptibility Analysis  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Omar Anaba
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2016.81001
Abstract: Recently watershed prioritization has become a pragmatic approach for watershed management and natural resources development. Wadi Shueib is a Jordan Rift valley and covers an area of 177.8 km2. The upper catchment is of dry Mediterranean climate, whereas the lower part is arid. The drainage network is sub-dendritic pattern, with a trellis pattern developed due to the influence of W. Shueib structure. Fourteen mini-watersheds were delineated and designated as (MW 1 to MW 14) for prioritization purposes. Morphometric analysis, and soil erosion susceptibility analysis were conducted, and their values were calculated for each mini-watersheds. Based on value/relationship with erodibility, different prioritization ranks were ascribed following the computation of compound factors. Based on morphometric and soil erosion susceptibility analysis, and the resultant ranks, the mini-watersheds have been classified into four categories in relation to their priority for soil conservation measures: very high, high, moderate, and low. It is found that 64.3% of the 3rdorder mini-watersheds are classified in the categories of very high and high priority. Based on soil erosion susceptibility analysis, three mini-watersheds are of very high priority and three are of high priority. The integration of morphometric and soil erosion susceptibility methods shows that mini-watersheds no.2 and no.3 are common mini-watersheds, and can be classified in the class of moderate and low priority respectively. By contrast, two mini-watersheds (no.8 and no.13) are categorized in the class of high priority based on morphometric analysis, and are classified in the category of very high priority based on soil erosion susceptibility analysis. Similarly, mini-watershed no.14 can be placed in the category of very high priority based on morphometric analysis, and ranks in the category of high priority based on soil erosion susceptibility analysis. With reference to the integration of the two methods of prioritization, it can be concluded that most of the mini-watersheds can be categorized in the classes moderate, high, and very high priority. Consequently, the entire W. Shueib watershed must be prioritized for soil and water conservation to ensure
Flash Flood Risk Estimation of Wadi Yutum (Southern Jordan) Watershed Using GIS Based Morphometric Analysis and Remote Sensing Techniques  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Omar Anaba
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2016.62008
Abstract: Flash flood disasters associated with heavy rainstorms are common in dry lands of Jordan. This causes inestimable damage to life and infrastructure. In the present investigation, flash floods were assessed in Wadi Yutum watershed, southern Jordan. Assessment was conducted using remote sensing and GIS techniques, combined with geological and geomorphic field data to evaluate the probability of flooding risk spatially. Two methods were used to assess the flooding risk for seventeen sub-basins of W. Yutum: the morphometric ranking method; and El-Shamy’s approach. Both methods utilized twenty morphometric parameters of paramount interest for flash flood risk estimation. The results achieved based on the two methods enabled identification of sub-basins with a high potential of flash flooding, and served to reveal the common sub-basins falling under each category of flooding risk. Morphometric analysis and GIS were employed to produce flood hazard maps which displayed sub-basins exposed to harmful flooding in Wadi Yutum. The adopted methodology can be applied to estimate flooding risk in other comparable watersheds and region in Jordan. Further, preparedness measures can be proposed in a timely manner in order to minimize destructive flood effects.
Assessment of Flash-Flood Hazard in Arid Watersheds of Jordan  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Atef Ayed
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2017.96045
Abstract: Flash flood hazard initiated by heavy rainstorms is common in arid Jordan, and often has induced immense damage to life and infrastructures. The current study presents a flash flood assessment for Wadi Rajil (northern Jordan) and Wadi Wuheida (southern Jordan) watersheds using ASTER DEM, GIS, and geomorphic field observation. A total of 23 morphometric parameters of paramount relation to flash flood risk estimation were extracted and calculated using ASTER DEM, GIS, and mathematical formulae developed for this purpose. Two methods were employed to assess flash floods and to generate flooding risk susceptibility maps. The first method is El-Shamy’s approach, and the second is the morphometric hazard degree assessment method. Consequently, sub-basins with high and extreme flooding susceptibility were demarcated and displayed spatially using GIS. The maps so produced are meant to help planners and decision makers to devise appropriate plans to mitigate harmful flooding impacts, and to deal with flooding hazards.
Spatial Estimation of Soil Erosion Risk Using RUSLE Approach, RS, and GIS Techniques: A Case Study of Kufranja Watershed, Northern Jordan  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Dalal Zregat, Ibrahim Farhan
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.512134
Abstract:

Wadi Kufranja catchment (126.3 km2), northern Jordan, was selected to estimate annual soil loss using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), remote sensing (RS), and geographic information system (GIS). RUSLE factors (R, K, LS, C and P) were computed and presented by raster layers in a GIS environment, then multiplied together to predict soil erosion rates, and to generate soil erosion risk categories and soil erosion severity maps. The estimated potential average annual soil loss is 10 ton·ha-1·year-1 for the catchment, and the potential erosion rates from recognized erosion classes ranged from 0.0 to 1850 ton·ha-1·year

Assessing Farmers’ Perception of Soil Erosion Risk in Northern Jordan  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Dalal Zregat, Ali Anbar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.68079
Abstract: Socioeconomic factors and farmer’s perception of soil erosion and conservation were examined with special reference to Wadi Kufranja catchment, northern Jordan. Field data were collected through a household field survey, and soil erosion loss was calculated and mapped using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), within a GIS/RS environment. In-situ field measurements of soil erosion were also conducted to assess splash, sheet and runoff soil erosion. The estimated potential average annual soil loss is 10 ton·ha-1 year for the watershed. 42.1% (5317. 23 ha) of the watershed area was estimated to have moderate soil loss (5 - 25 ton·ha-1·years -1). Soil erosion risk is severe to extreme over 31.2% (3940.56 ha) of the catchment, whereas the calculated soil loss is 25 - 50 and >50 ton·ha-1·year-1. The measured sheet and splash soil erosion in W. Kufranja was 10 ton·ha-1·year-1 from tillage land, and 3 ton·ha-1·year-1 from the fallow land, with an average ranges from 8 to 10 ton·ha-1·year-1. Similarly, the maximum measured soil erosion on the eastern margin of W. Kufranja was 12.7 ton·ha-1·year-1, while the minimum soil erosion was 2.9 ton·ha-1·year-1. The collected household socioeconomic/conservation data have been subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. Through factor analysis, the twenty one variables were reduced into four significant factors which account for 69.7% of the variation in the original variable. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the total variance explained by three independent variables was 0.585 (R = 0.765, R2 = 0.585). Out of the total variance, forest clearance explained 34.7%, fallow land 7.7%, and land use/land cover 16.1% respectively. The F-value for forest clearance, fallow land, and land use/land cover are significant at 0.1% level. Most of the farmers aware that poor land management, deforestation, overgrazing, traditional cultivation (cultivation up-and-down the slope, and mono-cropping), and population pressure, are the major direct and indirect causes of soil erosion. By contrast, vegetative measures (i.e., afforestation and tree planting), adoption of structural soil and water conservation measures (terraced farming, check dams and gully control), and crop system management were recommended to control soil erosion.
Morphometric Analysis and Flash Floods Assessment for Drainage Basins of the Ras En Naqb Area, South Jordan Using GIS  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Omar Anaba, Ali Salim
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.46002
Abstract: Morphometric analysis and flash floods assessment were conducted for the watersheds of Ras En Naqb escarpment, south Jordan. The study area comprises of twelve small watersheds occupying the faulted-erosional slopes, and the dip slopes. The drainage network shows that dendritic and sub-dendritic patterns dominated the dip slopes, whereas trellis pattern characterized the faulted-erosional slopes. Stream orders range from fourth to sixth order. The mean bifurcation ratios vary between 4.2 and 5.38 for the dip slope basins, and between 3.5 and 5.0 for the faulted-erosional slope watersheds, indicating a noticeable influence of structural disturbances (i.e., faulting and uplifting), and rejuvenation of drainage networks. All watersheds have short basin lengths, ranging from 23.8 km to 42.2 km for the dip slope basins, and between 15.3 km and 45.4 km for the faulted-erosional slope catchments. This is indicative of high flooding susceptibility associated with heavy rainstorms of short duration. The circularity ratios range from 0.177 to 0.704 which denote that the catchments are moderately circular on the faulted-erosional slopes, and to some extent elongated on the dip slopes. The length of overland flow values ranges from 0.854 to 0.924 for the dip slope catchments, whereas LO values for the faulted-erosional slopes vary from 0.793 to 0.945 denoting steep slopes and shorter paths on both dip slope and faulted-erosional slope watersheds. Values of stream frequency range from 1.509 to 1.692 for the dip slope, and from 1.688 to 2.0 for the faulted-erosional slope catchments. FS values are also indicative of slope steepness, low infiltration rate, and high flooding potential. The watersheds of the dip slopes show lower values of form factor varying from 0.079 to 0.364, indicating elongated shape and suggesting a relatively flat hydrograph peak for longer duration. Similarly, values of Dd are high for catchments on the dip slope basins (1.709 - 1.85) and the faulted-erosional slope watersheds (1.587 - 2.0) indicating highly dissected topography, high surface runoff, low infiltration rate, and consequently high flooding potential. Furthermore, high relief values exist, ranging from 388 m to 714 m for the dip slope basins, and from 421 m to 846 m for the faulted-erosional slope catchments indicting high relief and steep slopes. Morphometric analysis, and flash flood assessment suggest that ten watersheds (83.3%) are categorized under high and intermediate flooding susceptibility, and the faulted-erosional slope catchments
GIS-Based Morphometric Analysis of Fourth-Order Sub-Basins of the Zerqa River (Northern Jordan) Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Ibtisam Elmaji, Osama Khalil
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.78040
Abstract: The present study attempts to examine the morphometric characteristics and relationships of 43 fourth-order sub-basins over the Zerqa River watershed, using ASTER DEM, GIS and multivariate statistics. To achieve these objectives, Principal Component Analysis was utilized to reduce the 26 parameters into six major components which accounted for 79.3% of the total variance explained by the original morphometric variables. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA) (Ward’s method) has been applied to classify the 43 sub-basins based on different types of morphometric parameters. Four groups of sub-watersheds were identified and characterized by different morphometric properties. The patterns of spatial distribution of cluster groups were determined based on lithological, structure and tectonics, uplifting, and rejuvenation processes.
Quantitative Regionalization of W. Mujib-Wala Sub-Watersheds (Southern Jordan) Using GIS and Multivariate Statistical Techniques  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Nisrin Al-Shaikh
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2017.72010
Abstract: In arid and semi-arid watersheds, sustainable management of natural resources (i.e. land, water and ecological resources), and watershed management are crucial issues in applied morphometric studies. Geomorphometric parameters and their interrelationships are of paramount importance in characterizing the morphology, topography, geology and structure, hydrological potential, and geomorphic evolution of such catchments. An analysis of spatial characteristics and morphological development of the demarcated 76 sub-watersheds related to W. Mujib-Wala catchment, was carried out using ASTER DEM and GIS. Multivariate statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis (CA), and Discriminant Analysis (DA), were also employed to assess different aspects of drainage networks, and their morphometric properties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) reduces the 22 morphometric parameters to five components, which explain 90.4% of total variance. The relationship of these components to the morphometric variables and to the individual sub-watersheds was evaluated, and then the degree of inter-correlation among the morphometric descriptors was explored. The 76 sub-watersheds were classified according to their individual relation to the components, and similarities in their morphometric characteristics. Regionalization of sub-watertsheds was achieved using hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA). The validity of the resultant cluster groups was tested statistically by means of Discriminant Analysis. The present investigation provides information which highlights the benefit of geomorphometric analysis and multivariate statistics in modeling hydrological responses: i.e., surface runoff and sediment yield, hydrological assessment, water resources planning, and watershed management. Furthermore, the results can be useful for soil and water conservation planning, and assessment of flash floods potential.
GIS-Based Factorial Ecology and Social Public Space of the Twin City of Ramallah and Al-Bireh, West Bank, The Palestinian Authority  [PDF]
Sireen Al-Shawamreh, Yahya Farhan
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2018.103014
Abstract: In the present research, a factorial ecological approach using factor analysis was employed to evaluate the dimensionality of the urban social structure of the twin city: Ramallah and Al-Bireh, West Bank, the Palestinian Authority. Through factor analysis, the 41 variables were reduced to four factors with an eigenvalue > 1.0. These factors explain 77.07 percent of the total variables used in the study. Factor I contributes 28.419% of the total variance proportion of input variables, labeled as “family, housing, and public spaces factor”. Factor II accounts for 19.57% of the variance proportion, designated as” housing and urban public spaces”. Factor III is strongly correlated with variables referring to the characteristics of the head of the family, and the availability of public spaces, and thus, is designated as “head of the family and public spaces”. It explains 16.68% of the total variance. Finally, factor IV explains 12.406% of variance proportion, and is strongly associated with variables pertaining to a lack of public social spaces. Consequently, factor IV is termed “lack of public spaces”. The spatial distribution of factor scores related to factors I to IV was mapped using Arc GIS in order to analyze the spatial patterns of the recognized four factors. It is worth noting the factor IV, which refers to the lack of urban social space and, urban public space, which persists in the twin city, and will continue to persist in the future. The lack of urban open space and public social spaces is closely connected to migration, emerged housing pattern, and family status dimensions focused on factors I to III, continuous confiscation of the Palestinian lands, and the construction of Israeli settlements. Currently, the twin city is extremely overcrowded with stone/concrete buildings at the expense of public space which has declined continuously over the last three decades. Nevertheless, the analyzed spatial pattern of factor scores indicated the homogeneous character of the urban society of the twin city. Based on the urban eco-logical models which seek to characterize the Western, non-Western, Israeli, and Arab-oil producing (e.g., Kuwait) urban structures, it is difficult to elaborate a specific Palestinian urban ecological model with reference to the models developed elsewhere.
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