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LABORATORY MODELS FOR SCREENING ANALGESICS
Parle Milind,Yadav Monu
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Pain is a complex unpleasant phenomenon composed of sensory experiences that include time, space, intensity, emotion, cognition and motivation. Analgesics are the agents, which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS or by peripheral pain mechanisms without significantly altering consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical and technical problems. Philosophically, there is a problem that pain cannot be monitored directly in animals but can only be measured by examining their responses to nociceptive stimuli. The observed reactions are almost always motor responses ranging from spinal reflexes to complex behavior. The animal models employed for screening of analgesic agents, include Pain-state models based on the use of thermal stimuli, mechanical stimuli, electrical stimuli and chemical stimuli. The neuronal basis of most of the above laboratory models is poorly understood, however their application is profitable in predicting analgesic activity of newly discovered substances.
Factors associated with migration plans of Native youth
Monu, Erasmus D.
Canadian Studies in Population , 1976,
Abstract:
Beyond Gamification: Implications of Purposeful Games for the Information Systems Discipline
Kafui Monu,Paul Ralph
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Gamification is an emerging design principle for information systems where game design elements are applied to non-game contexts. IS researchers have suggested that the IS discipline must study this area but there are other applications such as serious games, and simulations that also use games in non-game contexts. Specifically, the management field has been using games and simulations for years and these applications are now being supported by information systems. We propose in this paper that we must think beyond gamification, towards other uses of games in non-gaming contexts, which we call purposeful gaming. In this paper we identify how the IS discipline can adapt to purposeful gaming. Specifically, we show how IT artifacts, IS design, and IS theories can be used in the purposeful gaming area. We also provide three conceptual dimensions of purposeful gaming that can aid IS practitioners and researchers to classify and understand purposeful games.
Tuberculosis in Children Living amongst Adults with Tuberculosis at the Tuberculosis and Leprosy Referral Hospital, Eku, Nigeria  [PDF]
Atana Uket Ewa, Dominic Fabian Essiet, Samuel John Umejei Monu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2015.33013
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis (tb) causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Nigeria, the exact prevalence is not known but a progressive increase of the disease has been observed, with “epidemic states” reported in certain clusters. Even with the newer diagnostic tests for tb, diagnostic difficulties still occur. As a result, several diagnostic criteria have been adopted to aid the diagnosis of tuberculosis in these children. The main objective of this study was to identify Tb in children who were either living with adults who have Tb or in the environment of adults with Tb. Methodology: This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in Eku and Oria communities in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. Eku housed the Tuberculosis and Leprosy Referral Hospital where adults with tb were admitted in the first two months of their treatment. 128 children under 19 years of age were studied over a 3-month period. After obtaining relevant information from every child, a full physical examination and certain laboratory investigations were done. Results: There were 68 males and 60 females. The prevalence of Tb was 68% in those children living among adults with tb within the hospital and 50.6% in those living in the environment or community (p = 0.05). The prevalence of Tb in Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) immunized children was 66.2% as against 46.7% in those not vaccinated. Twenty-six of the infected children (57.8%) had only pulmonary disease while 45.7% had affectation of 2 or more organs. The positive predictive values of elevated erythrocyte sedimented rate (ESR), elevated white blood cells (WBC) count and positive gastric aspirates (GA) in diagnosing tb were 60.3%, 70.5% and 0% respectively, while that of abnormal chest X-ray (CXR) and positive Mantoux reaction were 93.6% and 93.7% respectively. Conclusion: The alarming prevalence of tb in these children was not surprising considering their contacts with the tb patients and was representative of similar high incidence areas as a whole. Active case finding efforts should be intensified for childhood contacts of adults with Tb for early identification of children with tuberculosis.
Orbital ordering in undoped manganites via a generalized Peierls instability
S. Yarlagadda,P. B. Littlewood,M. Mitra,R. K. Monu
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.80.235123
Abstract: We study the ground state orbital ordering of $LaMnO_3$, at weak electron-phonon coupling, when the spin state is A-type antiferromagnet. We determine the orbital ordering by extending to our Jahn-Teller system a recently developed Peierls instability framework for the Holstein model [1]. By using two-dimensional dynamic response functions corresponding to a mixed Jahn-Teller mode, we establish that the $Q_2$ mode determines the orbital order.
Process for the Preparation of Chromones, Isoflavones and Homoisoflavones Using Vilsmeier Reagent Generated from Phthaloyl Dichloride and DMF  [PDF]
Santosh Kumar Yadav
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2014.44027
Abstract: Vilsmeier reagent formed from phthaloyl dichloride and DMF was found to be very effective for converting 2-hydroxyacetophenones, deoxybenzoins and dihydrochalcones into corresponding chromones, isoflavones and homoisoflavones with excellent yield. This method offers significant advantages such as efficiency and mild reaction conditions with shorter reaction time.
Double U-Shaped Slots Loaded Stacked Patch Antenna for Multiband Operation  [PDF]
Nagendra Prasad Yadav
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation (OJAPr) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapr.2015.32002
Abstract: The design of a seven-band stacked patch antenna for the C, X and Ku band is presented. The antenna consists of an H-slot loaded fed patch, stacked with dual U-slot loaded rectangular patch to generate the seven frequency bands. The total size of the antenna is 39.25 × 29.25 mm2. The multiband stacked patch antenna is studied and designed using IE3D simulator. For verification of simulation results, the antenna is analyzed by circuit theory concept. The simulated return loss, radiation pattern and gain are presented. Simulated results show that the antenna can be designed to cover the frequency bands from (4.24 GHz to 4.50 GHz, 5.02 GHz to 5.25 GHz) in C-band application, (7.84 GHz to 8.23 GHz) in X-band and (12.16 GHz to 12.35 GHz, 14.25 GHz to 14.76 GHz, 15.25 GHz to 15.51 GHz, 17.52 GHz to 17.86 GHz) in Ku band applications. The bandwidths of each band of the proposed antenna are 5.9%, 4.5%, 4.83%, 2.36%, 3.53%, 1.68% and 1.91%. Similarly the gains of the proposed band are 2.80 dBi, 4.39 dBi, 4.54 dBi, 10.26 dBi, 8.36 dBi and 9.91 dBi, respectively.
Tri-Band Parallel Slots Loaded Circular Disk Patch Antenna for C and X-Band Applications  [PDF]
Nagendra P. Yadav
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2016.71002
Abstract: This paper presents the tri-band slot loaded patch antenna for mobile communication. The antenna consists of parallel slots loaded circular disk with defected ground structure antenna (DGS). The antenna without DGS, acts like wide band antenna and bandwidth is 34.45% (3.47 - 4.92 GHz) with maximum gain of 4.97 dBi, which can be used in WiMax application. This structure has the following advantages: 1) co-axial feeding technique, which is very simple as compared to other feeding technique, 2) simple and cost effective and 3) it is more efficient than the antenna without DGS. This antenna has been analyzed using IE3D simulation software.
Polymeric Recrystallized Agglomerates of Cefuroxime Axetil Prepared by Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Technique
VB Yadav, AV Yadav
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: To study the effect of different polymers on the solubility and dissolution rate of cefuroxime axetil (CFU) prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion (ESD) technique. Methods: The ESD technique employed involved three test solvents: first, substance dissolution medium-good solvent (acetone); second, partial dissolution medium for the substance-bridging liquid (dichloromethane), and third, immiscible with the substance-poor solvent (distilled water). The pure CFU and the prepared agglomerates were characterized in terms of production yield, drug content, solubility, in vitro release profile, flowability, density, wettability, as well as by thin layer chromatography (TLC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) and stability test. Results: DSC showed a decrease in the melting enthalpy indicating disorder in the crystalline content. XRD also indicated changes in crystallinity, FTIR revealed that there were no chemical changes in the recrystallized agglomerates while dissolution data demonstrated a marked increase in the dissolution rate (>55 % in 45 min) compared with the pure drug (35% in 45 min). The improvement in the dissolution rate of CFU from optimized crystal formulation was attributed to the wetting effect of the polymers, change in drug crystallinity, altered surface morphology and micronization. The recrystallized agglomerates also exhibited higher wettability and flowability. Conclusion: The optimised recrystallized agglomerates exhibited good solubility, wettability, dissolution rate and other physicochemical properties compared to the unmodified CFU.
Preparation and evaluation of polymeric carbamazepin spherical crystals by emulsion solvent diffusion technique
Yadav Adhikrao,Yadav Venkat
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2009,
Abstract: In this study, a significant effect of different polymers on improving the solubility, dissolution rate, and physicochemical properties of carbamazepine (CBZ) has been demonstareted by emulsion solvent diffusion technique, with ethanol-chloroform-water as the solvent system. The hydrophilic polymers like polyethylene glycol, chitosan, and hydrophobic polymer Eudragit RSPO were used in the recrystallization process. The pure drug CBZ and the prepared spherical crystals of CBZ with different polymers were characterized in terms of morphology (microscopical photograph), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), drug contents, solubility, dissolution rate, crushing strength, wettability, flowability, and packability. The FTIR spectra of the prepared spherical crystals showed that changes in the chemical nature occur and do not present great fingerprint difference. The XRD also revealed a characteristic decrease in crystallinity. The solubility and dissolution studies demonstrated a marked increase in solubility and dissolution rate in comparison with the pure drug. The prepared spherical crystals with different polymers exhibited excellent physicochemical properties like flowability, packability, and wettability compared with the pure drug. The spherical crystals with polyethylene glycol and chitosan showed higher crushing strength when compared with the hydrophobic polymer (Eudragit RSPO).
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