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structure and morphology of the hepatic vessels and their relationship between
tumors and liver segments are major interests to surgeons for liver surgical
planning. In case of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), the most
important step in determining donor suitability is an accurate assessment of
the liver volume available for
transplantation. In addition, the mutual principles of the procedures
include dissection in the appropriate anatomic plane without portal
occlusion, minimization of blood loss, and avoidance of injury to the
remaining liver. It is essential first step to identify and evaluate the major
hepatic vascular structure for liver surgical planning. In this paper, the
threshold was determined to segment the liver region automatically based on the
distribution ratio of intensity value; and the hepatic vessels were extracted
with mathematical morphology transformation, which called hit operation, that
is slightly modified version of hit-and-miss operation on contrast enhanced
CT image sequence. We identified the vein using the preserved voxel
connectivity between two consecutive transverse image sequences, followed by
resection into right lobe including right hepatic vein, middle hepatic vein
branches andleft lobe including left hepatic vein. An automated hepatic vessel
segmentation scheme is recommended for liver surgical planning such as tumor
resection and transplantation. These vessel extraction method combined with
liver region segmentation technique could be applicable to extract tree-like
organ structures such as carotid, renal, coronary artery, and airway path from
various medical imaging modalities.
Betanova is a monomeric, three-stranded
antiparallel beta-sheet protein with twenty residues. The pathways between the
folded native structure and unfolded conformations of betanova are studied using
UNRES force field and the most popular computer simulation method, Metropolis
Monte Carlo algorithm. At a fixed temperature, 100 Monte Carlo simulations are
performed, starting from the folded native structure, and the pathways are
obtained at two different temperatures.
Understanding the folding processes of a
protein into its three-dimensional native structure only with its amino-acid
sequence information is a long-standing challenge in modern science. Two- hundred
independent folding simulations (starting from non-native conformations) and two-
hundred independent unfolding simulations (starting from the folded native
structure) are performed using the united-residue force field and Metropolis
Monte Carlo algorithm for betanova (three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet
protein). From these extensive computer simulations, two representative folding
pathways and two representative unfolding pathways are obtained in the reaction
coordinates such as the fraction of native contacts, the radius of gyration,
and the root- mean-square deviation. The folding pathways and the unfolding
pathways are similar each other. The largest deviation between the folding
pathways and the unfolding pathways results from the root-mean-square deviation
near the folded native structure. In general, unfolding computer simulations could
capture the essentials of folding simulations.
Our ultimate objective is to form nanoparticles by merging oppositely charged nanodroplets containing different constituents of the nanoparticle and construct a desktop apparatus to do this. These nanodroplets will be in oppositely charged aerosols originating from oppositely charged solutions containing the different component of the nanoparticle. In this paper, as the first stage in establishing the feasibility of this concept, we demonstrate that droplets formed from uncharged solutions will merge and the product of such reactions is the same as when their bulk solutions are mixed. We demonstrate that this is the case for three classes of reactions: the chemiluminescent reaction between Luminol and Potassium Ferricyanide, the pH sensitive fluorescence of Umbelliferone and the precipitation of Silver Chromate by reaction of Silver Nitrate with Potassium Chromate. We present arguments that our future goal using oppositely charged droplets is more efficient synthetically and will produce a narrow distribution of nanoparticle sizes.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)
cascade is the most important mechanism in environmental responses and
developmental processes in plants. The OsMAPK2 gene has been found to function in plant tolerance to
diverse biotic/abiotic stresses. This
paper presents evidence that OsMAPK2 (Oryza sativa MAP kinase gene 2) is responsive to Pi deficiency and involved in Pi homeostasis. We found that full-length expression of OsMAPK2 was up-regulated in both rice
plants and cell culture in the absence of inorganic phosphate (Pi).
The transgenic rice and Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsMAPK2 showed affected root development
and increased plant Pi content compared with wild-type plants.
Overexpression of OsMAPK2
controlled the expression of several Pi starvation-responsive genes.
Our results indicated that OsMAPK2 enables tolerance phosphate deficiency and is involved in Pi homeostasis.