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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 50653 matches for " Y; Kebede "
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The prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among individuals attending an adult psychiatry out-patient clinic in Gondar, Ethiopia
D Mekonnen, Y Kebede
African Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background:Suicide is a common problem worldwide and the magnitude is high especially in countries where mental illnesses are prevalent and psychiatric services are poor. Objective: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among patients who attended the Psychiatry clinic of Gondar University Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from March-December 2006 involving a total of 474 patients. Data was collected using a pre tested structured questionnaire containing basic socio-demographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, the methods of suicide attempt and ways of survival from the attempted suicide. It was administered by psychiatry nurses working in the clinic. The data was analyzed anonymously using SPSS software. Results: The commonest mental illness was Major Depressive Disorder (51.3%) followed by Psychosis (38%). Ninety one (19.2 %) patients attempted suicide at least once after the onset of the current mental illness and 307(64.8%) have suicidal ideation. The common method of suicidal attempt was hanging (45.1%) and 69.2% were at home. An association was found between suicidal ideation and attempt (OR=33.7; CI=8.2-138.8, p-value <0.01). Conclusion: Suicidal ideation was common in psychiatric patients. It was also associated with suicidal attempt.
Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminthiasis among School Children in Jimma Zone; A Cross-Sectional Study
A Yami, Y Mamo, S Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Globally, millions of people suffer from intestinal parasitic infections. These infections are among the most common resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. In Ethiopia and particularly in Jimma and its surroundings intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent because of low living standards and poor environmental sanitation. The objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitosis among school children in four woredas of Jimma zone surrounding Gilgel gibe hydraulic dam and serve as a base line data to help evaluate health promoting activities for the future and monitor those already delivered to the community. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in October, 2008 in four Woredas of Jimma zone bordering Gilgel Gibe Dam. Children attending grades 1-8 in the schools located within 10 Kms ofthe Dam in the four bordering woredas and those living 30 Kms away from the shore line were the study subjects. Six hundred twenty four and 321 children were selected from the schools around Gilgel Gibe dam and from the schools in Bulbul, respectively. Data on background of participant was collected and stool specimen collected and processed. Data were filtered and entered into computer then analyzed using SPSS for windows version 13.0.1. RESULTS: Of the 937 selected individuals, 855 participated in the study giving a response rate of 91.2%. The prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 47.1% where 174 (20%) had Ascaris lumbricoides monoinfection; 4.3% had dual infection involving Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm and 0.2% had triple infection but all the infections were of light intensity. In addition, there was no association between prevalence of intestinal parasitosis with availability or regular use of latrine and clinical symptoms. CONCLUSION: The prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasites in the study area is lower than national, urban and rural setting of Jimma zone. These might be due to a better awareness of the study community on prevention of intestinal parasitosis following increased health promoting activities in the area, delivered through various activities of Jimma Public health training program. KEYWORDS: intestinal parasitosis, Gilgel-Gibe, Southwest Ethiopia Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. 21, No. 3 November 2011
Ultrasound Assessment of Normal Portal Vein Diameter in Ethiopians Done at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital
Y Hawaz, D Admassie, T Kebede
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Portal hypertension occurs when the portal venous pressure exceeds 10mm Hg. Whatever the primary cause, the consequences of portal hypertension are similar. Liver cirrhosis is the commonest cause of portal hypertension. Because of its accessibility, lack of ionizing radiation and rapid assessment, sonography plays a major role in the assessment of portal hypertension. Even if the additional use of color and spectral Doppler improves the assessment of patients suspected of having portal hypertension, gray scale assessment of portal vein diameter is corner stone in the initial evaluation. Knowing the normal portal venous dimension in a specified population is so crucial. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study done at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital to sonographically determine the normal portal vein diameter. Data was collected from 502 patients on consecutive bases from May – September 2010. This includes 190 males and 312 females. Results: The mean portal vein diameter was 7.9 + 2mm with an increase in diameter with increase in age of the subject. Our study also revealed 21.5% increase in portal vein diameter with the phases of inspiration. Conclusion: This study has comparable results with studies done elsewhere so that it can be used as a baseline for future population based studies and clinical decision making.
Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in Addis Ababa
A Tariku, Y Melkamu, Z Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Antenatal care is more beneficial in preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes when it is sought early in pregnancy. However, existing evidence from developing countries including Ethiopia indicate that few women seek antenatal care at early stage of their pregnancy. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the timing of ANC booking and impact of previous antenatal care utilization on timing of first antenatal care booking in Addis Ababa governmental health institutions. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental health centers in Addis Ababa from March 1 to 30, 2008. Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for timely booking of antenatal care (OR=1.40, 95%CI: 0.91, 2.15). Multivariate analysis revealed that respondents who received advice on recommended time of booking, their pregnancy was planned and first pregnancy, were more likely to book timely compared to others (AOR=10.10, 95% CI: 4.54, 22.40; AOR=1.87, 95% CI:1.11, 3.23; (AOR= 1.86, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.44) respectively. Conclusions: Past utilization of antenatal care service did not come as a predictor for timely booking of the service, provided that advice on timely booking is the main factor. In order to improve the situation, strengthening of focused antenatal care, availing of clear service delivery guidelines and training of service providers are important.
Impact Assessment of Gilgel Gibe Hydroelectric Dam on Schitosomiasis: A Cross Sectional Study in Southwest Ethiopia
A Yami, S Kebede, Y Mamo
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis is prevalent in East Africa including Ethiopia. Constructed five years back, Gilgel Gibe dam is suspected to harbor the intermediate host for transmission of schistosomiasis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis and risk factors among school children. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2008 in four Woredas bordering Gilgel Gibe dam, within 10 kilometers, and Bulbul, which is 30 Kms away from the dam. Children attending grades 1-8 in the schools located adjacent to the dam constituted the cases and those living in Bulbul constitute the controls. Using Epinfo version 6.0 for cross-sectional study, a sample size of 937 was determined. Sample size allocation was done 2:1 for cases and control. After interview, stool sample was collected and analyzed. Screening for the presence of intermediate host and physiochemical analyses of selected water bodies along the major water contact sites of the reservoir was also done Data were entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 13.0.1. RESULTS: Out of 624 sampled cases and 312 controls, 585 and 270 participated in the study giving a response rate of 93.8% and 86.5%, respectively. Four hundred seventy four (81.0% of the cases and 203 (75.2%) controls use latrine regularly. On stool examination, 406 (47.5%) children, 295 (50.4%) cases and 111 (41.1%) controls) were positive to intestinal parasites but only two children, both from the control groups, were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. The three river water samples on which malacological survey was done had similar physicochemical characteristics in many ways except high conductivity, pH and percent of dissolved oxygen concentration (milligram per liter) at one site where uninfected Biomphilaria Pfeifferi was found CONCLUSION: The study revealed that schistosomiasis is not yet a problem at Gilgel-Gibe dam. But, continuous surveying is required as the intermediate host is prevalent, the water bodies are suitable for the intermediate host and cases of schistosomiasis are identified 30 kms away the dam, in control area.
A Dynamic Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench) diversity Management in Situ and Livelihood Resilience in South and Central Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Y Tsehaye, Z Abera, A Kebede, B Ghebremichael
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science , 2009,
Abstract: Sorghum is an important crop for the south and central parts of Tigray Region of Ethiopia. To assess the level of sorghum diversity, two zones, namely South and Central Tigray were selected and eighteen villages in three woredas, Alamata, Raya-Azebo and Tanqua-Abergelle, were surveyed. A total of 93 randomly selected farmers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that elicited information on socioeconomic aspects of households, sorghum plots, the number and types of farmers’ local varieties grown in the area, variety characteristics, seed exchange systems and seed flow together with selection criteria’s as well as seed selection process and management. A total of 165 collections belonging to 31 locally named sorghum varieties were retrieved and stored at Mekelle University. High diversity in terms of landrace richness were found the Alamata area (Margalef = 2.92; Menhinick = 1.66) followed by Raya-Azebo (Margalef = 2.61; Menhinick = 1.46) and Tanqua-Abergelle was found to be less diverse in terms of number of named varieties (Margalef = 1.40; Menhinick = 1.0). Diversity estimated based on evenness indices showed that Tanqua-Abergelle has the highest diversity (Shannon =0.86; Brillouin index = 0.86) followed by Raya-Azebo (Shannon =0.85; Brillouin index = 0.85). The lowest evenness was found in Alamata woreda (Shannon =0.77; Brillouin index = 0.77). Based on the varietal richness and use values, four sites (villages) that could serve as seed repositories were identified. The result of the econometric analysis indicated that a combination of factors, such as year of schooling, labour equivalence, tropical livestock unit, and number of parcels were the most important determinants that affect significantly the intra-specific diversity. The regression analysis indicates the positive linkage between land fragmentation and landrace richness. The increase in diversity over temporal scale of ten years found in this study revealed that the level of genetic erosion needs numerical evidence to substantiate. The socioeconomic factors that affect varietal diversity and possible conservation and incentive strategies are discussed.
Catchment modeling and model transferability in upper Blue Nile Basin, Lake Tana, Ethiopia
A. S. Gragne,S. Uhlenbrook,Y. Mohammed,S. Kebede
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Understanding spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has an important role for water resource management. To understand water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms at the Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into lake Tana, source of Blue Nile, Ethiopia) and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling was conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. The catchment of the Gigel Abay was sub-divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Abay, UGASC, and Koga, KSC) and one ungauged sub-catchment. Manual calibration of the daily models for three different catchment representations (CRs): (i) lumped, (ii) lumped with multiple vegetation zones, and (iii) semi-distributed with vegetations zone and elevation zones, showed good to satisfactory model performance (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values, Reff>0.75 and >0.6, respectively, for UGASC and KSC). The change of the time step to fifteen and thirty days resulted in very good model performances in both sub-catchments (Reff>0.8). The model parameter transferability tests conducted on the daily models showed poor performance in both sub-catchments, whereas the fifteen and thirty days models yielded high Reff values using transferred parameter sets. This together with the sensitivity analysis carried out after Monte Carlo simulations (1 000 000 model runs) per CR explained the reason behind the difference in hydrologic behaviors of the two sub-catchments UGASC and KSC. The dissimilarity in response pattern of the sub-catchments was caused by the presence of dambos in KSC and differences in the topography between UGASC and KSC. Hence, transferring model parameters from the view of describing hydrological process was found to be not feasible for all models. On the other hand, from a water resources management perspective the results obtained by transferring parameters of the larger time step model were acceptable.
The Role of Magnetic Fields in Gamma-Ray Bursts from SNeII  [PDF]
Legesse Wetro Kebede
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.34058
Abstract:

Data from a recently discovered long Gamma Ray Burst (GRB 090102) by NASAs Swift satellite revealed that such GRBs may not be fireballs as usually presumed, but instead they are powered and collimated by organized strong magnetic fields (≧ 1015 G) generated by the compact object, a neutron star (NS) created at the core of the associated supernova explosion (SNeII). A mechanism for the generation of such strong surface magnetic fields where power NSs result from the deaths of massive progenitor stars is described based on a non-conventional model for pulsar magnetic fields, namely, spinning polarization charge that I recently developed in [1]. I show that this could give rise to scenarios involving long GRB events as the one captured by the Swift satellite during GRB 090102 in January 2, 2009. The model predicts that the magnetic moment of a NS has a dynamical feature which makes it different from that of a simple pulsar. I show this could have serious consequences on the statistics of observing long GRBs and also help explain such scenarios as the steep decline in the photon count-rate and the subsequent shutoff in the Swift/XRT X-ray data from GRB 070110.

Brief Communication: Comparison of formol-acetone concentration method with that of the direct iodine preparation and formol-ether concentration methods for examination of stool parasites
F Moges, Y Belyhun, M Tiruneh, Y Kebede, A Mulu, A Kassu, K Huruy
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Formol-ether concentration technique is taken as a gold standard method to detect most intestinal parasites; however, because of its low safety and hazardous impact a need for better technique has a paramount importance. Objective: To evaluate a formol- acetone concentration method in comparison with the conventional direct iodine preparation and formol- ether concentration methods in detecting intestinal parasites. Methods: A total of 382 stool samples were collected from Tseda elementary school children, in 2006. Samples were processed and examined using formol-acetone concentration, the direct iodine stained smear, and formol-ether concentration methods. Results: Formol-ether detected 79.1% of parasites followed by formol-acetone (73.6%) and direct iodine preparation (50.3%). Statistical (P< 0.05) difference was observed for the detection of over all positivity of any parasites between the two concentration methods. However, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predicative value of formol-acetone were 88.1%, 81.3%, and 94.7%, respectively respective to formol-ether method. Almost similar detection ability was also observed by the two concentration methods for A. lumbricoids, H. nana, T. trichuira, and S. stercoralis. However, there was difference in the detection rate of hookworm and S. mansoni. Conclusions: for safety and hazard free laboratory set up, this new method might be used as an alternative choice for formol-ether concentration method. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2010;24(2):148-151]
The Gender Perspective of Household Food Security in Meskan District of the Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia
M Kebede
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: Despite the considerable number of rural women in Ethiopia and their contribution in food production, processing , preparation and provision, they are often neglected and deprived of services and amenities which leads to their vulnerability to poverty, food insecurity, gender bias and effects of environmental change. Accordingly, the principal objective of this study is to assess the food security situation and the type of coping strategies pursued by female and male- headed households in two kebeles of Meskan District of the Gurage Zone, Ethiopia. The findings of the study indicated that femaleheaded households compared to male-headed households are found at a low level of food security and are non- self sufficient in terms of the food requirement of their households and the amount they produce within a year. A number of factors cause the difference in food security status between female and male-headed households as discussed in detail in this paper. The paper winds up by concluding that granting a piece of land by itself could not end the food insecurity problem of female-headed households as these households are constrained by lack of access to important factors of production such as labor, plough oxen and credit and other agricultural inputs. Moreover, cultural and social constraints in a form of gender biased customs, stereotypes and misconceptions about women are the major challenges for female-headed households in the study area.
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