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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 494539 matches for " Y.A. Awoyinka "
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Effects of Livelihood Strategies and Sustainable Land Management Practices on Food Crop Production Efficiency in South-West Nigeria
Y.A. Awoyinka,J.A. Akinwumi,V.O. Okoruwa,O.A. Oni
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Efficiency in food crop production is a topical issue in food security programme of Nigerian government. However, past policies directed for increased food crop production efficiency have not been effective because of neglect of Livelihood Strategy (LS) and attributes of Land Management Practices (LMP) used by farmers in food crop production policy analysis. The effect of LS and LMP on crop production efficiency was investigated. Multistage random sampling was used to collect primary data from 400 farmers in South West Nigeria. Data collected were analyzed with Translog stochastic model. The four LS identified were staple crops/off-farm income (LS1 = 30.0%); staple crops/wages and salary (LS2 = 22.5%); LS1/vegetable/ fruits/livestock production (LS3 = 27.5%); LS3/Tree Crops (LS4 = 20.0%). Farmers adopted multiple LMPs for crop production. Agronomic Practices (AP = 80.0%) was preferred to others including Soil Management Practices (SMP = 65.0%), Conservation Practices (CP = 60.0%), Structural and Mechanical Erosion Control Practices (SMECP = 34.0%). The mean Technical Efficiency (TE) was 0.52 for the farmers and TE increased with LS3 (p<0.01) and LS4 (p<0.1). The level of LMP used by farmers, joint effects of LMP and physical inputs (except for fertilizer) and LMP and LS (except for LS4) was unsustainable with respect to crop output and TE (p<0.05). The most beneficial LS that ensured sustainable LMP for food crop production efficiency among farming households is LS4. The LS4 significantly improved TE in South-West Nigeria.
Settlements Pattern and Functional Distribution in an Emerging Communities: A Case of a Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria
Y.A. Ahmed
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: This study examines Ilorin South Local Government Area (LGA) of Kwara State, which in the recent time, carved out from city of Ilorin, Nigeria. The impression is that the new LGA, which had established a long string attachment with Ilorin may find it difficult to stand on its own. Settlements in an ideal situation exert good relationship with one another if they have common social and cultural links. But in Ilorin South LGA both infrastructural facilities and social amenities are elusively developed forcing workers to reside in Ilorin city. The study derives it data from the fieldwork-survey and observations and the data gathered were analyzed using Correlation and Nearest Neighbors Analyses. The findings revealed some remarkable achievements within a short while and the levels of new hierarchical settlement orders give the LGA a new unique description. The geographical distribution of the areas also indicated morphological patterns that result from a closed into random generation. Suggestions are put forward with desire to embarking on more regional development programmes.
Assembly of a fast multi resolution spectrophotometer system for simultaneous measurement of absorption and luminescence spectra
Y.A. Yousef
Optica Applicata , 2005,
Abstract: In this work, the design and assembly of a dual spectrophotometer system capable of measuring the absorption as well as time resolved luminescence spectra of liquid, gaseous, or solid samples are reported. The system incorporates a 1024×376 elements coupled charge detector (CCD) capable of monitoring changes in optical spectra with time delays as short as few microseconds time scale. Such a design reduced significantly the costs of purchasing two separate systems containing similar optical and electronic components. In addition, the design enabled further investigations on the photodegradation mechanism for a benzimidazole based pesticide.
Statines in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis connected diseases: efficiency and safety
Y.A. Karpov
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology , 2005,
Abstract: Results of large-scale studies carried out during last 10 years and devoted to the assessment of statines efficiency in prevention of ischemic heart disease (IHD), are analyzed. Decrease in risks of myocardial infarction, instable angina pectoris and mortality by 25-40%, ischemic stroke — by 25-30% (CARE, LIPID, WOSCOPS, AFCAPS/TexCAPS, HPS, ASCOT-LLA, CARDS) is demonstrated. Recommendations for statines prescription for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including IHD and ischemic stroke, are significantly expanded. New goals in holesterol of low density lipoproteid (HLDL) reduction are discussed, aswell as problems of statin treatment safety. The choice of the drug must be based on clinical research data, considering efficiency and safety at long-term use, as well as possibilities of achieving new goal level of HLDL.
ACE inhibitors in patients with ischemic heart disease without heart failure: class effects and efficacy of its representatives
Y.A. Karpov
Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology , 2005,
Abstract: Results of large-scale studies (QUIET, HOPE, EUROPA, PEACE, CAMELOT), devoted to assessment of the role of ACE inhibitors in treatment of patients with stable form of ischemic heart disease without heart failure are analyzed. Different efficacy of the representatives of this class toward risks of coronary events development and cerebral-vascular complications is shown, as well as the overall mortality risk due to cardiovascular reasons. Favorable therapeutic effects of inhibiting RAS activity in patients without left ventricle dysfunction are demonstrated in studies EUROPA with perindopril 8 mg, and HOPE with ramipril 10 mg. That became the ground of inclusion of these drugs into recommendations for treatment of all patients with ischemic heart disease after myocardial infarction, in addition to antiplatelet, lipid reducing remedies and beta-blockers.
Compressive Strength of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blockwork
Y.A. Daou
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: One of the basic problems in the design of masonry structures is the calculation of the compressive strength of masonry walls. This paper discusses the various parameters which affect the compressive strength of Autoclaved Aerated concrete blockwork with particular reference to the British Standard BS 5628: Part 1 and the Draft Eurocode EC6. Thirty six blockwork wallettes made of Autoclaved Aerated concrete blockwork were built and tested together with the corresponding properties of the units. The parameters examined were unit strength, mortar strength and size of the units. For the range of the block width (i.e. 100mm and 200mm), The strength of the wallettes were not significantly affected by the height/width ratio of the unit. Higher block strength yielded higher wallette stergnth, but only a slight difference in the strength of wallettes built with mortar designation (iii) and (iv) (i.e. 1:1:6 and 1: 2:9 by volume, cement: lime: sand respectively) was obtained. The methods used in the British Standard BS 5628 and the Eurocode EC6 for the determination of the compressive strenght of masonry are reviewd and compared with the test results.
CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
Y.A. Adediran,A. Abdulkarim
International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) become technologically obsolete in a matter of months as a result of continuous development of new models. Most of the obsolete equipment find their way into developing countries who are hungry for information technology access. At the end of life, they eventually find their way into landfills as Electronic Waste (E-Waste or Waste EEE) which may pose health and environmental hazards to humans, livestock and ecology if not properly managed. This paper reviews the issues relating to E-Waste. It identifies the sources of E-Waste as well as their components and the dangers in them. Alternative initiatives and means of managing E-Waste both nationally and internationally are discussed. Recommendations are made on appropriate treatment of E-Waste in order to make the environment safe for all.
Teachers Perception of Private Primary Schools Contribution to Educational Development in Ijebu-North L.G.A., Nigeria
Y.A. Oguntimehin,Joshua O. Oni
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2010.280.285
Abstract: The descriptive study which investigated the perception of teachers of private and public primary schools on the contribution of private primary schools to educational development was carried out in Ijebu-North Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. About 24 approved private primary schools, having 24 head teachers and 385 teachers and 101 public primary schools with 101 head teachers and 1,100 teachers made up the population. The sample, using stratified random sampling technique, comprised 24 (100%) approved private primary schools and their 24 (100%) head teachers and 310 (80.5%) teachers; as well as (44.6%) public primary schools and their 45 (44.6%) head teachers and 550 (50%) teachers. A research question was drawn and two null hypotheses were formulated. A questionnaire entitled: Private Primary Schools Contribution to Educational Development Questionnaire (PPSCEDQ) was used in collecting information. The analysis of data revealed among others that private primary schools were contributing significantly to educational development in the local government area. The performance could, however be further enhanced if they are adequately monitored and supervised by the government.
Lipid Profile of Rats Fed Cholesterol, Barely and Wheat
Abdullah Y.A. Al-Rewashdeh
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: The comparative effects of barely and wheat on body lipids were investigated by feeding 105 growing male Sprague-Dawley rats diets containing: 1, 2, 3 and 4 g cholesterol added to 1 kg diet. Barely and wheat were added to the basal diet at 55% and the ingredients were recalculated to obtain 10% total dietary fiber. Diets were fed for 4 week; basal diet (free of cholesterol and fiber) was the control diet. Food Intake (FI); Weight Gain (WG); Total Lipid (TL) and Total Cholesterol (TC) in serum, liver, heart, kidneys spleen and feces; Triglycerides (TG), Phospholipids (PL), Free Cholesterol (FC) and Cholesterol Ester (CE) in serum and liver; Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in serum and neutral sterols and bile acids in feces were studied. Rats fed barely had the lowest levels of FI, WG, TL and TC in serum and endogenous organs; TG, FC and CE in serum and liver and of LDL-c and HDL-c, whereas had the highest levels of TL, TC, neutral sterols and bile acids in feces. Added cholesterol to the diets of rats resulted in an increase, in dose dependant manner, in mentioned lipid parameters in serum and endogenous organs and its effects followed the raising order: with control diet > with wheat > with barely. However, dietary cholesterol caused an increase in TL, TC, neutral sterols and bile acids in feces.
Blood Lipid Profile, Oxidation and Pressure of Men and Women Consumed Olive Oil
Abdullah Y.A. Al-Rewashdeh
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Recent studies have pointed out the possibility that olive oil may reduce these factors. The present study was designed to assess the effect of three olive oils contained different levels of phenolic comounds on blood lipid profile, oxidation status and pressure of normo cholesterol and pressure men and women. 12 men and 13 women participated in the study. Subjects consumed there habitual diets with low phenol-, medium phenol-, or high phenol- containing olive oil for 4 weeks each with a 4-week washout period between them. Consumption of these oils was nonsignificantly reduced triglycerides, total cholesterol, free cholesterol and cholesterol ester concentrations and no marked effect in phospholipids concentration. However, resulted in significantly reduction in LDL-c and rising in HDL-c concentrations in plasma of men and women. These reduction and rising effects were increased with increasing the phenols content and no worth differences between men and women. Plasma contents of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol were nonsignificantly and squalene and phenol were significantly increased after consumption of olive oils in both sexes compared with the base lines. Plasma malondialdehyde level and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) were significantly reduced with increasing phenol content in consumed oil. In conclusion, dietary olive oil with high phenol content proved to be helpful in reducing the CHD risk factors and normalize blood pressure systolic pressure of men and women.
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