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Antimicrobial Activities of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) Fruit Extracts on Six Standard Microorganisms and Their Clinical Counterpart  [PDF]
Y.-G. Afanyibo, K. Anani, K. Esseh, Y. Sadji, K. Idoh, K. Koudouvo, A. Agbonon, Y. Améyapoh, K. Tozo, M. Gbeassor
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104951
Abstract:
Syzygium aromaticum is used in combination with other plants as an al-coholic infusion by traditional practitioners to treat infections. It has been selected for evaluation for its antimicrobial properties to justify its use in traditional pharmacopoeia. The fruits were used as plant material while the microbial germs consisted of six reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Candida albicans ATCC 35659 and their clinical counterparts. The extracts were obtained by aqueous decoction, hydroethanolic and ethanolic macerations. The phytochemical screening was performed by chemical staining tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the well diffusion method and the MIC and MBC or MFC were determined using the 96-well microplate dilution method. The results showed that 66.67% of the strains tested were sensitive to the aqueous extract with inhibition diameters ranging from 15 to 21 mm and MIC and MCB or MFC between 0.0976 - 0.3906 mg/mL and 0.1953 - 07812 mg/mL respectively, thus determining bacteriostatic activity. 100% of the germs tested were sensitive to hydroethanolic and ethanolic extracts. The inhibition diameters range from 12 - 28 mm for hydroethanolic extract with MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0488 - 0.3906 mm and 0.0488 - 0.7812 mm respectively. The ethanolic extract gave inhibition diameters of 12 - 26 mm; MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0976 - 0.7812 mm. Hydroethanolic extract gave three (3) bactericidal/fungicidal activities compared to four (4) as for ethanolic extract. These results prove the use of S. aromaticum among traditional recipes for treating infections in the pharmacopoeia but further studies remain important to produce traditionally improved drugs.
Arrhythmia post heart transplantation
R. Baretti,B. Debus,B. Lin,Y.-G. Weng
Transplantationsmedizin , 2011,
Abstract: A variety of arrhythmias can occur after heart transplantation (HTx). Hearts selected to be donated for HTx should be in good condition and generally beat in sinus rhythm (SR). Absence or loss of SR after HTx can be due to any reason and can lead to serious hemodynamic problems. Ischemia reperfusion injury, unbalanced serum electrolytes and re-warming of cold myocardial tissue are known to initiate arrhythmia during the period of reperfusion after implantation of the heart graft. An important cause of arrhythmias after HTx is the possible rejection reaction, which often prompts supraventricular arrhythmias. Subsequent to the initial course after HTx operation transplant vasculopathy can cause arrhythmias of all kinds. The post-HTx effects of some antiarrhythmic substances such as amiodarone administered preoperatively are at present under discussion as possibly being associated with an increased risk for mortality. A survey of patients’ data from the Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (DHZB) showed that continuous SR is accompanied by favorable course after HTx. Absence of SR or its loss predicts organ failure. Significant risk factors for cardiac graft failure were found to be associated with the preoperative condition of recipients and donors as well as with the operative procedures and the respective postoperative courses. Of these risk factors three were prominently associated with cardiac graft failure: absence or loss of SR initially after HTx operation, donor age over 30 years and previous thoracic operation of the recipient. Antiarrhythmic medication regulates cardiac rhythm. We examined the hypothesis whether preoperatively administered antiarrhythmic medication influences post-HTx cardiac rhythm and function due to loading of the recipient’s body with an antiarrhythmic substance. The examination of the DHZB data showed that medication for antiarrhythmic purposes in patients waiting for HTx is without influence on the occurrence or continuation of sinus rhythm or on the incidence of arrhythmia after HTx. No preoperatively administered antiarrhythmic substance was associated with postoperative arrhythmia or with cardiac graft failure.
Arrhythmia post heart transplantation
R. Baretti,B. Debus,B. Lin,Y.-G. Weng
Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology , 2011,
Abstract: A variety of arrhythmias can occur after heart transplantation (HTx). Hearts selected to be donated for HTx should be in good condition and generally beat in sinus rhythm (SR). Absence or loss of SR after HTx can be due to any reason and can lead to serious hemodynamic problems. Ischemia reperfusion injury, unbalanced serum electrolytes and re-warming of cold myocardial tissue are known to initiate arrhythmia during the period of reperfusion after implantation of the heart graft. An important cause of arrhythmias after HTx is the possible rejection reaction, which often prompts supraventricular arrhythmias. Subsequent to the initial course after HTx operation transplant vasculopathy can cause arrhythmias of all kinds. The post-HTx effects of some antiarrhythmic substances such as amiodarone administered preoperatively are at present under discussion as possibly being associated with an increased risk for mortality. A survey of patients’ data from the Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (DHZB) showed that continuous SR is accompanied by favorable course after HTx. Absence of SR or its loss predicts organ failure. Significant risk factors for cardiac graft failure were found to be associated with the preoperative condition of recipients and donors as well as with the operative procedures and the respective postoperative courses. Of these risk factors three were prominently associated with cardiac graft failure: absence or loss of SR initially after HTx operation, donor age over 30 years and previous thoracic operation of the recipient. Antiarrhythmic medication regulates cardiac rhythm. We examined the hypothesis whether preoperatively administered antiarrhythmic medication influences post-HTx cardiac rhythm and function due to loading of the recipient’s body with an antiarrhythmic substance. The examination of the DHZB data showed that medication for antiarrhythmic purposes in patients waiting for HTx is without influence on the occurrence or continuation of sinus rhythm or on the incidence of arrhythmia after HTx. No preoperatively administered antiarrhythmic substance was associated with postoperative arrhythmia or with cardiac graft failure.
The Ero Vili and the Atlantic Wall  [PDF]
G. Tomezzoli, Y. Marzin
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2015.54018
Abstract: In this article the events concerning the south portion of the Audierne Bay in the department of Finistère (France) during the 2nd World War are analyzed. The role of the Ero Vili and the Camp Todt in the construction of the Atlantic Wall fortification and the state of preservation of the military and logistic constructions of this portion of the Audierne Bay are presented in order to stimulate further studies by experts and amateurs.
Analysis of Nonlinear Dust-Acoustic Shock Waves in an Unmagnetized Dusty Plasma with q-Nonextensive Electrons Where Dust Is Arbitrarily Charged Fluid  [PDF]
G. Mandal, N. Y. Tanisha
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2015.32015
Abstract:

The nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) shock waves in three-component unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of nonextensive electrons, Maxwellian ions and arbitrarily charged mobile dust grain has been investigated. It is found that the presence of q-nonextensive electrons and ions can change the nonlinear behavior of shock wave. The standard reductive perturbation method is employed to study the basic features (phase speed, amplitude and width) of DA shock waves (DASWs) which are significantly modified by the presence of Maxwellian ions and nonextensive electrons. The present investigation can be very effective for understanding the nonlinear characteristics of the DASWs in space and laboratory dusty plasmas.

Analysis for Pull-In Voltage of a Multilayered Micro-Bridge Driven by Electrostatic Force  [PDF]
Y. LIU, G.C. WANG, H.Y. YANG
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.21007
Abstract: A trial solution for bending deflection of a multilayered micro-bridge subject to a voltage induced load is presented. The relation between the applied voltage and the displacements of the micro-bridge in the pull-in state is analyzed by energy method. Furthermore, two analytical expressions about normalized displacement and pull-in voltage are carried out. It’s proved that the value of normalized displacement is not influenced by residual stress if axial and shear deformation is ignored. Finally, the theoretical results are compared with that of FEM, and they show good agreement.
Experimental Evaluation of the Attenuation Effect of a Passive Damper on a Road Vehicle Bumper  [PDF]
A. Agyei-Agyemang, G. Y. Obeng, P. Y. Andoh
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2014.23021
Abstract: To mitigate the degree of damage to passengers caused by automobile collisions, a friction damper was built and used in experimental tests to test its effectiveness in impact energy attenuation. The study revealed that energy absorption capacity of a bumper can be improved with the addition of a friction damper. The results revealed that the addition of the friction damper to an automobile bumper to give a bumper-damper system could attenuate about 32.5 % more energy than with the bumper alone. It can be concluded that the effectiveness of automobile bumpers to withstand impact of vehicles by absorbing the kinetic energy from the impact can be improved with the use of a passive friction damper. That is, a passive friction damper system could be used to attenuate more road vehicle impact energy in collisions.
Climate Change, Adaptive Strategies and Rural Livelihoods in Semiarid Tanzania  [PDF]
Richard Y. M. Kangalawe, James G. Lyimo
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.43034
Abstract:

Climate change is a global challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. In Tanzania as in most African countries, farming depends almost entirely on rainfall, a situation that makes agriculture and thus rural livelihoods especially in semiarid environments particularly vulnerable to climate change. This study analyses the impacts of climate change and variability on rural livelihoods with particular focus on agricultural production, food security and adaptive capacities in semiarid areas of Tanzania. The methods used in this study included focus group discussions, key informant interviews, household surveys and field observations. Results from the study indicate that communities understood climate change in terms of variability in rainfall patterns and amount, temperature patterns, wind, water availability, increased incidences of drought and decreased agricultural productivity. Communities in the study area acknowledged that while rainfall amounts have decreased over the last thirty years, temperatures have increased; an experience is also supported by meteorological data. Such changes were claimed to have reduced agricultural productivity particularly due to prolonged drought, inadequate and uneven distribution of rainfall as well as unpredictable onset and ending of rains. Stressors such as
crop diseases and pests, low soil fertility and inadequate extension services were also reported to contribute to the decline in agricultural productivity and re-occurrence of food insecurity. In response, communities have developed multiple adaptation strategies
, including growing of drought tolerant and early maturing crop varieties, increasing wetlands cultivation, water harvesting for small-scale irrigation and livestock keeping. However, households with limited livelihood assets are more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and food insecurity. The study argues that diversification of adaptive strategies, such as water harvesting for small-scale irrigation, integration of livestock and crop production are crucial to ensuring sustainable livelihood in a

Control of Cross-Sections and Optical Nonlinearity of Pt Nanowires and the Roughness Effect
Y. Ogata,G. Mizutani
Physics Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/969835
Abstract: In this paper we review our fabrication of Pt nanowire arrays on MgO(110) faceted templates by a shadow deposition method and our control of their cross-sectional shapes by adjusting the deposition directions of platinum. We obtained nanowire arrays with and 2 macroscopic symmetries. These macroscopic symmetries influence optical second harmonic generation (SHG) susceptibility elements of the nanowire arrays sensitively. On the other hand, the roughness of the nanowires had an effect on the rotational SHG patterns as a function of the sample rotation angle around the surface normal. We tried to explain the pattern change by a second-order perturbation scheme with respect to the roughness amplitude.
Lignocellulosic enzymes from Flavodon flavus, a fungus isolated from Western Indian Ocean off the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
G Mtui, Y Nakamura
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Marine basidiomycetes fungus Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden was isolated from sea grass at Mjimwema in the Western Indian Ocean off the Coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and cultured in the laboratory. Protein content and lignocellulosic enzyme activities were measured by photometric methods. Desalted and size-separated enzyme filtrates were resolved by sodium docecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric focusing (IEF). The fungal filtrate had maximum lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and Laccase (Lac) activities of 42, 25 and 15 U/mL, respectively. At low carbon medium, F. flavus showed effective (92 - 100%) decolorization of raw textile wastewater and synthetic dyes such as rhemazol brilliant blue-R (RBB-R), Brilliant green, Congo red, Reactive black and Reactive yellow. SDS-PAGE analysis showed major bands of sizeseparated enzymes from F. flavus at relative molecular weights between 45 and 70 kDa. The LiP of F. flavus, purified by ion exchange chromatography, revealed that it has a molecular weight of 46 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 3.8. The study confirmed extracellular enzymes from F. flavus to be potential degraders of organic pollutants and showed that facultative marine fungi that live under harsh seawater conditions are suitable for bioremediation of recalcitrant environmental pollutants.
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