Abstract:
The theory of (classical and) quantum mechanical microscopic irreversibility developed by B. Misra, I. Prigogine and M. Courbage (MPC) and various other contributors is based on the central notion of a Lyapounov variable - i.e., a dynamical variable whose value varies monotonically as time increases. Incompatibility between certain assumed properties of a Lyapounov variable and semiboundedness of the spectrum of the Hamiltonian generating the quantum dynamics led MPC to formulate their theory in Liouville space. In the present paper it is proved, in a constructive way, that a Lyapounov variable can be found within the standard Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and, hence, the MPC assumptions are more restrictive than necessary for the construction of such a quantity. Moreover, as in the MPC theory, the existence of a Lyapounov variable implies the existence of a transformation mapping the original quantum mechanical problem to an equivalent irreversible representation. In addition, it is proved that in the irreversible representation there exists a natural time observable splitting the Hilbert space at each t>0 into past and future subspaces.

Abstract:
In non relativistic quantum mechanics time enters as a parameter in the Schroedinger equation. However, there are various situations where the need arises to view time as a dynamical variable. In this paper we consider the dynamical role of time through the construction of a Lyapunov variable - i.e., a self-adjoint quantum observable whose expectation value varies monotonically as time increases. It is shown, in a constructive way, that a certain class of models admit a Lyapunov variable and that the existence of a Lyapunov variable implies the existence of a transformation mapping the original quantum mechanical problem to an equivalent irreversible representation. In addition, it is proved that in the irreversible representation there exists a natural time ordering observable splitting the Hilbert space at each t>0 into past and future subspaces.

Abstract:
Given a Hamiltonian $H$ on a Hilbert space $\mathcal H$ it is shown that, under the assumption that $\sigma(H)=\sigma_{ac}(H)=R^+$, there exist unique positive operators $T_F$ and $T_B$ registering the Schr\"odinger time evolution generated by $H$ in the forward (future) direction and backward (past) direction respectively. These operators may be considered as time observables for the quantum evolution. Moreover, it is shown that the same operators may serve as time observables in the construction of quantum stochastic differential equations and quantum stochastic processes in the framework of the Hudson-Parthasarathy quantum stochastic calculus. The basic mechanism enabling for the definition of the time observables originates from the recently developed semigroup decomposition formalism used in the description of the time evolution of resonances in quantum mechanical scattering problems.

Abstract:
We discuss some of the experimental motivation for the need for semigroup decay laws, and the quantum Lax-Phillips theory of scattering and unstable systems. In this framework, the decay of an unstable system is described by a semigroup. The spectrum of the generator of the semigroup corresponds to the singularities of the Lax-Phillips $S$-matrix. In the case of discrete (complex) spectrum of the generator of the semigroup, associated with resonances, the decay law is exactly exponential. The states corresponding to these resonances (eigenfunctions of the generator of the semigroup) lie in the Lax-Phillips Hilbert space, and therefore all physical properties of the resonant states can be computed. We show that the parametrized relativistic quantum theory is a natural setting for the realization of the Lax-Phillips theory.

Abstract:
We apply the quantum Lax-Phillips scattering theory to a relativistically covariant quantum field theoretical form of the (soluble) Lee model. We construct the translation representations with the help of the wave operators, and show that the resulting Lax-Phillips $S$-matrix is an inner function (the Lax-Phillips theory is essentially a theory of translation invariant subspaces). We then discuss the non-relativistic limit of this theory, and show that the resulting kinematic relations coincide with the conditions required for the Galilean description of a decaying system.

Abstract:
The one-channel Wigner-Weisskopf survival amplitude may be dominated by exponential type decay in pole approximation at times not too short or too long, but, in the two channel case, for example, the pole residues are not orthogonal, and the pole approximation evolution does not correspond to a semigroup (experiments on the decay of the neutral K-meson system support the semigroup evolution postulated by Lee, Oehme and Yang, and Yang and Wu, to very high accuracy). The scattering theory of Lax and Phillips, originally developed for classical wave equations, has been recently extended to the description of the evolution of resonant states in the framework of quantum theory. The resulting evolution law of the unstable system is that of a semigroup, and the resonant state is a well-defined funtion in the Lax-Phillips Hilbert space. In this paper we apply this theory to relativistically covarant quantum field theoretical form of the (soluble) Lee model. We show that this theory provides a rigorous underlying basis for the Lee-Oehme-Yang-Wu construction.

Abstract:
The quantum mechanical description of the evolution of an unstable system defined initially as a state in a Hilbert space at a given time does not provide a semigroup (exponential) decay law. The Wigner-Weisskopf survival amplitude, describing reversible quantum transitions, may be dominated by exponential type decay in pole approximation at times not too short or too long, but, in the two channel case, for example, the pole residues are not orthogonal, and the evolution does not correspond to a semigroup (experiments on the decay of the neutral $K$-meson system strongly support the semigroup evolution postulated by Lee, Oehme and Yang, and Yang and Wu). The scattering theory of Lax and Phillips, originally developed for classical wave equations, has been recently extended to the description of the evolution of resonant states in the framework of quantum theory. The resulting evolution law of the unstable system is that of a semigroup, and the resonant state is a well-defined function in the Lax-Phillips Hilbert space. In this paper we apply this theory to a relativistically covariant quantum field theoretical form of the (soluble) Lee model. We construct the translation representations with the help of the wave operators, and show that the resulting Lax-Phillips $S$-matrix is an inner function (the Lax-Phillips theory is essentially a theory of translation invariant subspaces). In the special case that the $S$-matrix is a rational inner function, we obtain the resonant state explicitly and analyze its particle ($V, N, \theta$) content. If there is an exponential bound, the general case differs only by a so-called trivial inner factor, which does not change the complex spectrum, but may affect the wave function of the resonant state.

Abstract:
Evolutionary history has provided insights into the assembly and functioning of plant communities, yet patterns of phylogenetic community structure have largely been based on non-dynamic observations of natural communities. We examined phylogenetic patterns of natural colonization, extinction and biomass production in experimentally assembled communities.

Abstract:
The scattering theory of Lax and Phillips, designed primarily for hyperbolic systems, such as electromagnetic or acoustic waves, is described. This theory provides a realization of the theorem of Foias and Nagy; there is a subspace of the Hilbert space in which the unitary evolution of the system, restricted to this subspace, is realized as a semigroup. The embedding of the quantum theory into this structure, carried out by Flesia and Piron, is reviewed. We show how the density matrix for an effectively pure state can evolve to an effectively mixed state (decoherence) in this framework. Necessary conditions are given for the realization of the relation between the spectrum of the generator of the semigroup and the singularities of the $S$-matrix (in energy representation). It is shown that these conditions may be met in the Liouville space formulation of quantum evolution, and in the Hilbert space of relativistic quantum theory.

Abstract:
The semigroup decomposition formalism makes use of the functional model for $C_{.0}$ class contractive semigroups for the description of the time evolution of resonances. For a given scattering problem the formalism allows for the association of a definite Hilbert space state with a scattering resonance. This state defines a decomposition of matrix elements of the evolution into a term evolving according to a semigroup law and a background term. We discuss the case of multiple resonances and give a bound on the size of the background term. As an example we treat a simple problem of scattering from a square barrier potential on the half-line.