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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 333205 matches for " Y. J. Kuan "
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Biomolecules in the Interstellar Medium and Comets
S. B. Charnley,S. D. Rodgers,Y-J. Kuan,H-C. Huang
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00499-4
Abstract: We review recent studies of organic molecule formation in dense molecular clouds and in comets. We summarise the known organic inventories of molecular clouds and recent comets, particularly Hale-Bopp. The principal chemical formation pathways involving gas phase reactions, as well as formation by catalytic reactions on grain surfaces or through dust fragmentation, are identified for both dense clouds and cometary comae. The processes leading to organic molecules with known biological function, carbon chains, deuterium fractionation, HNC and S-bearing compounds are described. Observational searches for new interstellar organics are outlined and the connection between observed interstellar organics and those detected in comets Hale-Bopp and Hyakutake are discussed.
Millimetric and sub-millimetric observations of IRAS 05327+3404 "Holoea" in M36
O. Morata,Y. J. Kuan,P. T. P. Ho,H. C. Huang,E. A. Magnier,R. Zhao-Geisler
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/146/3/49
Abstract: The transition between the proto-star, Class I, and the pre-main sequence star, Class II, phases is still one of the most uncertain, and important, stages in the knowledge of the process of formation of an individual star, because it is the stage that determines the final mass of the star. We observed the YSO "Holoea", associated with IRAS 05327+3404, which was classified as an object in transition between the Class I and Class II phases with several unusual properties, and appears to be surrounded by large amounts of circumstellar material. We used the SMA and BIMA telescopes at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths to observe the dust continuum emission and the CO (1-0) and (2-1), HCO+ (1-0) and (3-2), and HCN (1-0) transitions in the region around IRAS 05327+3404. We detected two continuum emission peaks at 1.1-mm: SMM 1, the sub-mm counterpart of IRAS 05327+3404, and SMM 2, ~6 arcsec to the West. The emissions of the three molecules show marked differences. The CO emission near the systemic velocity is filtered out by the telescopes, and CO mostly traces the high-velocity gas. The HCO+ and HCN emissions are more centrally concentrated around the central parts of the region, and show several intensity peaks coincident with the sub-mm continuum peaks. We identify two main molecular outflows: a bipolar outflow in an E-W direction that would be powered by SMM 1 and another one in a NE direction, which we associate with SMM 2. We propose that the SMM sources are probably Class I objects, with SMM 1 in an earlier evolutionary stage.
Ground-based Multiwavelength Observations of Comet 103P/Hartley 2
A. Gicquel,S. N. Milam,G. L. Villanueva,A. J. Remijan,I. M. Coulson,Y. -L. Chuang,S. B. Charnley,M. A. Cordiner,Y. -J. Kuan
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/1
Abstract: The Jupiter-family comet 103P/Hartley 2 (103P) was the target of the NASA EPOXI mission. In support of this mission, we conducted observations from radio to submillimeter wavelengths of comet 103P in the three weeks preceding the spacecraft rendezvous on UT 2010 November 4.58. This time period included the passage at perihelion and the closest approach of the comet to the Earth. Here we report detections of HCN, H2CO, CS, and OH and upper limits for HNC and DCN towards 103P, using the Arizona Radio Observatory Kitt Peak 12m telescope (ARO 12m) and submillimeter telescope (SMT), the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) and the Greenbank Telescope (GBT). The water production rate, QH2O = (0.67 - 1.07) x 10^28 s^-1, was determined from the GBT OH data. From the average abundance ratios of HCN and H2CO relative to water (0.13 +/- 0.03 % and 0.14 +/- 0.03 %, respectively), we conclude that H2CO is depleted and HCN is normal with respect to typically-observed cometary mixing ratios. However, the abundance ratio of HCN with water shows a large diversity with time. Using the JCMT data we measured an upper limit for the DCN/HCN ratio <0.01. Consecutive observations of ortho- H2CO and para-H2CO on November 2 (from data obtained at the JCMT), allowed us to derive an ortho : para ratio (OPR) ~ 2.12 +/- 0.59 (1sigma), corresponding to Tspin > 8 K (2sigma).
Ethyl cyanide on Titan: Spectroscopic detection and mapping using ALMA
M. A. Cordiner,M. Y. Palmer,C. A. Nixon,P. G. J. Irwin,N. A. Teanby,S. B. Charnley,M. J. Mumma,Z. Kisiel,J. Serigano,Y. -J. Kuan,Y. -L. Chuang,K. -S. Wang
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/800/1/L14
Abstract: We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C$_2$H$_5$CN) in Titan's atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA). The presence of C$_2$H$_5$CN in Titan's ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C$_2$H$_5$CNH$^+$. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C$_2$H$_5$CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at $>3\sigma$ confidence), in the frequency range 222-241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC$_3$N, CH$_3$CN and CH$_3$CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC$_3$N, CH$_3$CN and CH$_3$CCH, which peak in Titan's northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C$_2$H$_5$CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C$_2$H$_5$CN. Radiative transfer models show that most of the C$_2$H$_5$CN is concentrated at altitudes 300-600 km, suggesting production predominantly in the mesosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (2-5)$\times10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$.
High-fidelity readout and control of a nuclear spin qubit in silicon
Jarryd J. Pla,Kuan Y. Tan,Juan P. Dehollain,Wee H. Lim,John J. L. Morton,Floris A. Zwanenburg,David N. Jamieson,Andrew S. Dzurak,Andrea Morello
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nature12011
Abstract: A single nuclear spin holds the promise of being a long-lived quantum bit or quantum memory, with the high fidelities required for fault-tolerant quantum computing. We show here that such promise could be fulfilled by a single phosphorus (31P) nuclear spin in a silicon nanostructure. By integrating single-shot readout of the electron spin with on-chip electron spin resonance, we demonstrate the quantum non-demolition, electrical single-shot readout of the nuclear spin, with readout fidelity better than 99.8% - the highest for any solid-state qubit. The single nuclear spin is then operated as a qubit by applying coherent radiofrequency (RF) pulses. For an ionized 31P donor we find a nuclear spin coherence time of 60 ms and a 1-qubit gate control fidelity exceeding 98%. These results demonstrate that the dominant technology of modern electronics can be adapted to host a complete electrical measurement and control platform for nuclear spin-based quantum information processing.
A single-atom electron spin qubit in silicon
Jarryd J. Pla,Kuan Y. Tan,Juan P. Dehollain,Wee H. Lim,John J. L. Morton,David N. Jamieson,Andrew S. Dzurak,Andrea Morello
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nature11449
Abstract: A single atom is the prototypical quantum system, and a natural candidate for a quantum bit - the elementary unit of a quantum computer. Atoms have been successfully used to store and process quantum information in electromagnetic traps, as well as in diamond through the use of the NV-center point defect. Solid state electrical devices possess great potential to scale up such demonstrations from few-qubit control to larger scale quantum processors. In this direction, coherent control of spin qubits has been achieved in lithographically-defined double quantum dots in both GaAs and Si. However, it is a formidable challenge to combine the electrical measurement capabilities of engineered nanostructures with the benefits inherent to atomic spin qubits. Here we demonstrate the coherent manipulation of an individual electron spin qubit bound to a phosphorus donor atom in natural silicon, measured electrically via single-shot readout. We use electron spin resonance to drive Rabi oscillations, while a Hahn echo pulse sequence reveals a spin coherence time (T2) exceeding 200 \mu s. This figure is expected to become even longer in isotopically enriched 28Si samples. Together with the use of a device architecture that is compatible with modern integrated circuit technology, these results indicate that the electron spin of a single phosphorus atom in silicon is an excellent platform on which to build a scalable quantum computer.
Coherent Control of a Single Silicon-29 Nuclear Spin Qubit
Jarryd J. Pla,Fahd A. Mohiyaddin,Kuan Y. Tan,Juan P. Dehollain,Rajib Rahman,Gerhard Klimeck,David N. Jamieson,Andrew S. Dzurak,Andrea Morello
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.246801
Abstract: Magnetic fluctuations caused by the nuclear spins of a host crystal are often the leading source of decoherence for many types of solid-state spin qubit. In group-IV materials, the spin-bearing nuclei are sufficiently rare that it is possible to identify and control individual host nuclear spins. This work presents the first experimental detection and manipulation of a single $^{29}$Si nuclear spin. The quantum non-demolition (QND) single-shot readout of the spin is demonstrated, and a Hahn echo measurement reveals a coherence time of $T_2 = 6.3(7)$ ms - in excellent agreement with bulk experiments. Atomistic modeling combined with extracted experimental parameters provides possible lattice sites for the $^{29}$Si atom under investigation. These results demonstrate that single $^{29}$Si nuclear spins could serve as a valuable resource in a silicon spin-based quantum computer.
ALMA measurements of the HNC and HC$_3$N distributions in Titan's atmosphere
M. A. Cordiner,C. A. Nixon,N. A. Teanby,J. Serigano,S. B. Charnley,S. N. Milam,M. J. Mumma,P. G. J. Irwin,D. C. Lis,G. Villanueva,L. Paganini,Y. -J. Kuan,A. J. Remijan
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/795/2/L30
Abstract: We present spectrally and spatially-resolved maps of HNC and HC$_3$N emission from Titan's atmosphere, obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) on 2013 November 17. These maps show anisotropic spatial distributions for both molecules, with resolved emission peaks in Titan's northern and southern hemispheres. The HC$_3$N maps indicate enhanced concentrations of this molecule over the poles, consistent with previous studies of Titan's photochemistry and atmospheric circulation. Differences between the spectrally-integrated flux distributions of HNC and HC$_3$N show that these species are not co-spatial. The observed spectral line shapes are consistent with HNC being concentrated predominantly in the mesosphere and above (at altitudes $z\gtrsim 400$ km), whereas HC$_3$N is abundant at a broader range of altitudes ($z\approx70$-600 km). From spatial variations in the HC$_3$N line profile, the locations of the HC$_3$N emission peaks are shown to be variable as a function of altitude. The peaks in the integrated emission from HNC and the line core (upper-atmosphere) component of HC$_3$N (at $z\gtrsim300$ km) are found to be asymmetric with respect to Titan's polar axis, indicating that the mesosphere may be more longitudinally-variable than previously thought. The spatially-integrated HNC and HC$_3$N spectra are modeled using the NEMESIS planetary atmosphere code and the resulting best-fitting disk-averaged vertical mixing ratio (VMR) profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement with previous measurements for these species. Vertical column densities of the best-fitting gradient models for HNC and HC$_3$N are $1.9\times10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$ and $2.3\times10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$, respectively.
Analysis and Prediction of Highly Effective Antiviral Peptides Based on Random Forests
Kuan Y. Chang, Je-Ruei Yang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070166
Abstract: The goal of this study was to examine and predict antiviral peptides. Although antiviral peptides hold great potential in antiviral drug discovery, little is done in antiviral peptide prediction. In this study, we demonstrate that a physicochemical model using random forests outperform in distinguishing antiviral peptides. On the experimental benchmark, our physicochemical model aided with aggregation and secondary structural features reaches 90% accuracy and 0.79 Matthew's correlation coefficient, which exceeds the previous models. The results suggest that aggregation could be an important feature for identifying antiviral peptides. In addition, our analysis reveals the characteristics of the antiviral peptides such as the importance of lysine and the abundance of α-helical secondary structures.
Mapping the release of volatiles in the inner comae of comets C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2012 S1 (ISON) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array
M. A. Cordiner,A. J. Remijan,J. Boissier,S. N. Milam,M. J. Mumma,S. B. Charnley,L. Paganini,G. Villanueva,D. Bockelee-Morvan,Y. -J. Kuan,Y. -L. Chuang,D. C. Lis,N. Biver,J. Crovisier,D. Minniti,I. M. Coulson
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/792/1/L2
Abstract: Results are presented from the first cometary observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), including measurements of the spatially-resolved distributions of HCN, HNC, H$_2$CO and dust within the comae of two comets: C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2012 S1 (ISON), observed at heliocentric distances of 1.5 AU and 0.54 AU, respectively. These observations (with angular resolution $\approx0.5''$), reveal an unprecedented level of detail in the distributions of these fundamental cometary molecules, and demonstrate the power of ALMA for quantitative measurements of the distributions of molecules and dust in the inner comae of typical bright comets. In both comets, HCN is found to originate from (or within a few hundred km of) the nucleus, with a spatial distribution largely consistent with spherically-symmetric, uniform outflow. By contrast, the HNC distributions are clumpy and asymmetrical, with peaks at cometocentric radii $\sim$500-1000~km, consistent with release of HNC in collimated outflow(s). Compared to HCN, the H$_2$CO distribution in comet Lemmon is very extended. The interferometric visibility amplitudes are consistent with coma production of H$_2$CO and HNC from unidentified precursor material(s) in both comets. Adopting a Haser model, the H$_2$CO parent scale-length is found to be a few thousand km in Lemmon and only a few hundred km in ISON, consistent with destruction of the precursor by photolysis or thermal degradation at a rate which scales in proportion to the Solar radiation flux.
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