Abstract:
This
paper presents a new type of circulant matrices. We call it the first and the
last difference r-circulant matrix (FLDcirc_{r} matrix). We can
verify that the linear operation, the matrix product and the inverse matrix of
this type of matrices are still FLDcirc_{r} matrices. By constructing the basic FLDcirc_{r} matrix, we give the discriminance for FLDcirc_{r} matrices and the fast algorithm of the inverse and generalized inverse of the FLDcirc_{r} matrices.

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Nominal countability is problematic for foreign learners in production-oriented activities, especially for those whose native language does not have the corresponding function systems. In contrast to foreign learners' great difficulties with nominal numbers in foreign text production as shown in extensive linguistic research, there is a scarcity of lexicographic research on assisting foreign learners with their difficulties in this respect. Prompted by the great discrepancy between foreign learners' needs for lexicographic assistance and the relative indifference concerning this in lexicographic research, this study attempts to explore to what extent the lexicographic data in connection with nominal countability and their presentation in present learner's dictionaries can help foreign learners in foreign text production. This study will offer some constructive lexicographic solutions to the problems incurred by foreign learners' misconceptions of nominal countability in foreign text production. OPSOMMING: Telbaar of ontelbaar? Dit is die vraag — Leksikografiese oplossings vir naamwoordelike telbaarheid in aanleerderswoordeboeke vir produksiedoeleindes. Nominale telbaarheid is problematies vir vreemde aanleerders by produksiegerigte handelinge, veral vir hulle wie se moedertaal nie die ooreenstemmende funksiesisteme het nie. In teenstelling met vreemde aanleerders se groot moeilikhede met nominale getalle in vreemdeteksproduksie soos uit omvattende taalkundige navorsing blyk, is daar 'n skaarste aan leksikografiese navorsing wat vreemde aanleerders help met hul moeilikhede in hierdie opsig. Na aanleiding van die groot verskil tussen vreemde aanleerders se behoefte aan leksikografiese hulp en die relatiewe onbelangstellendheid hieroor in leksikografiese navorsing, probeer hierdie studie nagaan tot watter mate die leksikografiese data in verband met nominale telbaarheid en die aanbieding hiervan in huidige aanleerderswoordeboeke vreemde aanleerders in vreemdeteksproduksie kan help. Hierdie studie sal enkele konstruktiewe leksikografiese oplossings aanbied vir probleme ondervind as gevolg van vreemde aanleerders se wanopvattings oor nominale telbaarheid by vreemdeteksproduksie. Sleutelwoorde: SJINESE EVT-AANLEERDERS, MOEILIKHEDE VAN SJINESE AANLEERDERS, DATATOEGANKLIKHEID, DATA-AANBIEDING, VREEMDETEKSPRODUKSIE, LEKSIKOGRAFIESE INLIGTINGSBEHOEFTES, INLIGTINGSHERWINNING, AANLEERDERSWOORDEBOEKE, LEKSIKOGRAFIESE OPLOSSINGS, NOMINALE TELBAARHEID, PROFIEL VAN SJINESE AANLEERDERS

Abstract:
In the title compound, C13H16ClNO, the acetylindoline moiety is roughly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0048 ). The chloropropyl group is out of the plane and is statistically disordered over two positions. Indeed, the Cl and CH3 groups located on the stereogenic carbon exchange with each other. The whole crystal is a racemate. Non-classical C—H...O hydrogen bonds between symmetry-related benzene rings stabilize the crystal structure.

Abstract:
In the title compound, C9H11NOS, the thiazolidinyl ring is almost perpendicular to the phenyl ring with N—C—C—C torsion angles of 71.7 (2) and 107.1 (2)°. In the crystal, molecules are connected via N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming layers.

Abstract:
The molecule of the title compound, C13H14ClNO2, is roughly planar [maximum deviation = 0.060 (2) ] with the disordered Cl/CH3 group asymetrically distributed on both sides of the mean plane. Indeed, the Cl and CH3 located on the stereogenic carbon exchange each other with occupancy factors in the ratio 0.60:0.40. The whole crystal is a racemate. Non-classical C—H...O hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6959 (9) ] between symmetry-related phenyl rings stabilize the crystal structure.

Abstract:
Background: The conventional therapy for arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) is Western medicine. However, it has some adverse effects and does not respond to some patients, and it is also very expensive.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of integrated traditional Chinese (TCM) and Western medicine (WM) in treatment of ASO.Search strategy: Electronic and manual searches were conducted and the searches ended on May 20, 2009.Inclusion criteria: We included randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating integrated TCM and WM (as treatment group) versus WM used alone (as control group), and no language limits were set.Data extraction and analysis: Selection of trials for inclusion, assessment for methodological quality, data extraction and data syntheses were conducted according to protocol of a Cochrane systematic review by the authors.Results: Thirteen RCT were included, which encompassed a total of 968 patients. The results showed that all of the 13 included trials did not report mortality rate of ASO. The studies displayed that the amputation rate in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group, but there was no statistical significance. Ten studies adopted inefficiency analysis and 2 of them showed that the ineffective rate in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group, and the relative risk (RR) and 95% CI were 0.36 ［0.13, 0.99］. We performed descriptive analysis on other 8 studies; analyses of secondary outcomes such as intermittent claudication, ankle brachial index, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) showed that integrated TCM and WM therapy was more effective than WM treatment alone; one study showed that WM was better than integrated TCM and WM therapy in decreasing the content of fibrinogen. All of the included trials did not report any critical adverse reactions occurred in the treatment group.Conclusion: The current evidence shows that integrated TCM and WM therapy is safe and effective in treating ASO, and tends to reduce amputation rate, improve intermittent claudication, decrease the levels of fibrinogen, HDL and LDL, and increase ankle brachial index, without obvious adverse reactions. Due to the low methodological quality of trials included, more prospective, multicenter, large-scale, high-quality RCTs are needed.

Abstract:
Objective: To select the proper experimental animal model for research on prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia. Method: Hyperlipidemia models of mouse, rat, golden hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, pigeon and quail often used in the last ten years were compared. Results: Golden hamster and guinea pig models are similar to human beings in lipid metabolism and have unique superiority in experimental study, while the models of rat, mouse, pigeon and quail have significant difference as compared with human beings. Rabbit is one of the best animal models in studying new drugs for regulating lipid and treating arteriosclerosis. Conclusion: Factors such as the required time, indexes, the duration of making models, and the cost and feeding of animals should be considered in selecting animal models according with the experimental requirements.

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Fructus Xanthii is commonly used in rhinology, especially used in treatment of chronic rhinitis and sinusitis. But Fructus Xanthii is toxicant, and it maybe result in poisoning when used excessively, without preparation or in inappropriate preparation. This article reviewed all poisoning cases from 1960 to 2000, its toxicology and methods for detoxification.

Abstract:
Searching for an intermediate-range force has been considerable interests in gravity experiments. In this paper, aiming at a scalar-tensor theory with an intermediate-range force, we have derived the metric and equations of motion (EOMs) in the first post-Newtonian (1PN) approximation for general matter without specific equation of state and $N$ point masses firstly. Subsequently, the secular periastron precession $\dot{\omega}$ of binary pulsars in harmonic coordinates is given. After that, $\dot{\omega}$ of four binary pulsars data (PSR B1913+16, PSR B1534+12, PSR J0737-3039 and PSR B2127+11C) have been used to constrain the intermediate-range force, namely, the parameters $\alpha$ and $\lambda$. $\alpha$ and $\lambda$ respectively represent the strength of the intermediate-range force coupling and its length scale. The limits from four binary pulsars data are respectively $\lambda=(4.95\pm0.02)\times10^{8}$m and $\alpha=(2.30\pm0.01)\times10^{-8}$ if $\beta=1$ where $\beta$ is a parameter like standard parametrized post-Newtonian parameter $\beta_{PPN}$. When three degrees of freedom ($\alpha$, $\lambda$ and $\bar{\beta}\equiv\beta-1$) in 1$\sigma$ confidence level are considered, it yields $\alpha=(4.21\pm0.01)\times10^{-4}$, $\lambda=(4.51\pm0.01)\times10^{7}$m and $\bar{\beta}=(-3.30\pm0.01)\times10^{-3}$. Through our research on the scalar-tensor theory with the intermediate-range force, it shows that the parameter $\alpha$ is directly related to the parameter $\gamma$ ($\alpha=(1-\gamma)/(1+\gamma)$). Thus, this presents the constraints on $1-\gamma$ by binary pulsars which is about $10^{-4}$ for three degrees of freedom.

Abstract:
For tracking a spacecraft and doing radio science, the transformation between the proper time $\tau$ given by a clock carried on board a spacecraft and the barycentric coordinate time (TCB) is investigated under IAU resolutions. In order to show more clearly physical pictures and improve computational efficiency, an analytic approach is adopted. After numerical checks, it shows this method is qualified for a Mars orbiter during one year, especially being good at describing the influence from perturbing bodies. Further analyses demonstrate that there are two main effects in the transformation: the gravitational field of the Sun and the velocity of the spacecraft in the barycentric coordinate reference system (BCRS). The whole contribution of them is at the level of a few sub-seconds.