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Research on Effectiveness of the Government R&D Subsidies: Evidence from Large and Medium Enterprises in China  [PDF]
Xindong Zhang, Junjun Wu
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.49056
Abstract: To cope with the fast-changing business environment, Chinese government makes every effort to increase business R&D subsidies. The aim of this paper is to examine the efficiency of Chinese government R&D subsidies on innovative performance and the moderating role of a firm’s R&D capacity. Based on the data from Chinese Large and Medium Firms during 1997-2012, we analyze whether government R&D subsidies affect a firm’s innovative performance, as well as how this effect works. The findings suggest that the firms that received increasing government R&D subsidies will have a better innovative performance, yet up to a point. Beyond this threshold, a greater share of government R&D subsidy will reduce a firm’s innovative performance. And such substitution effect is larger for firms with greater R&D capacity. Also, the firm’s own R&D capacity, size, industry technical levels have varying degrees of impact on the efficiency of government R&D subsidies. The findings of this paper may have practical value and help governments to develop relative regulations and policies.
The Market Pricing of Information Risk: From the Perspective of the Generating and Utilizing of Information  [PDF]
Xindong Zhang, Xin Li
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2014.34014
Abstract: Generating and utilizing are the two sources of the information risk, reflecting the quality of financial reporting and investors’ information interpreting ability respectively. Using accrual quality to represent the financial reporting quality and the earnings transparency to represent investors’ information interpreting ability, we examine the correlation among them. By combining the generating and utilizing steps of information, we construct a two-dimensional information risk factor, which equals the excess return of portfolios in high-risk areas subtract that in low-risk areas. Then, taking the Fama-MacBeth two-stage cross-sectional regression procedure, we test whether the information risk factor is a pricing factor with individual stocks and industry portfolios respectively, and the empirical results support the point that information risk is priced by market.
Manager Characteristics and the Choice of Firm “Low Leverage”: Evidence from China  [PDF]
Yiping Chen, Xindong Zhang, Zhe Liu
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.410062
Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the low-leverage phenomenon of firms and examine the question of why some firms have low leverage in China. We find Low-leverage firms are smaller, have higher profitability and hold more cash balances than control firms chosen by industry and size. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that these firms are operated by risk-aversion manager. Firms with older Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and higher first shareholder ownership are more likely to have low debt. Also, CEO gender is one of the determinants of low-leverage choice.
The Quality Test to Tarim River Sluice Concrete by the Rebound Method
Xindong Zhang,Yue Han
Modern Applied Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v2n6p97
Abstract: The nondestructive examination (NDE) used for concrete defection is a new method of quality testing for concrete and it is characterized by rapid measurement, high precision and low cost. In this article, we introduce the basic principle and the development application of the rebound method. Taking the engineering project in Tarim Dam as an example, we use the rebound method to test the concrete structure in the Tarim River sluice, introduce the test method and approach of the rebound method, and analyze the test result. The result indicates that the nondestructive examination based on the concrete rebound method is an effective method with simple operation, easy operation, convenient use and high computation precision to test the quality of the concrete with large volume and achieve the requirement of the project.
Low temperature resistivity in a nearly half-metallic ferromagnet
Xindong Wang,X. -G. Zhang
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.4276
Abstract: We consider electron transport in a nearly half-metallic ferromagnet, in which the minority spin electrons close to the band edge at the Fermi energy are Anderson-localized due to disorder. For the case of spin-flip scattering of the conduction electrons due to the absorption and emission of magnons, the Boltzmann equation is exactly soluble to the linear order. From this solution we calculate the temperature dependence of the resistivity due to single magnon processes at sufficiently low temperature, namely $k_BT\ll D/L^2$, where $L$ is the Anderson localization length and $D$ is the magnon stiffness. And depending on the details of the minority spin density of states at the Fermi level, we find a $T^{1.5}$ or $T^{2}$ scaling behavior for resistivity. Relevance to the doped perovskite manganite systems is discussed.
Spin symmetry and spin current of helicity eigenstates of the Luttinger Hamiltonian
Xindong Wang,X. -G. Zhang
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2004.09.109
Abstract: A general spin symmetry argument is proposed for spin currents in semiconductors. In particular, due to the symmetry with respect to spin polarization of the helicity eigenstates of the Luttinger Hamiltonian for a hole-doped semiconductor, the spin polarized flux from a single helicity eigenstate induced by an external electric field, is canceled exactly when all such contributions from eigenstates that are degenerate in energy are summed. Thus, the net spin current predicted by Murakami et al, Science 301, 1348 (2003), cannot be produced by such a Hamiltonian. Possible symmetry breaking mechanisms which may generate a spin current are discussed.
A 2 Gb/s optical receiver with monolithically integrated MSM photodetector in standard CMOS process
XinDong Xiao,ShiLin Zhang,LuHong Mao,Sheng Xie,Yan Chen
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-011-4482-3
Abstract: A monolithically standard complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) optical receiver with a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector is presented in this paper. An active-feedback transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with negative Miller capacitance is used to increase the bandwidth of the receiver. The MSM photodetector with high responsivity provides higher sensitivity for the optical receiver. The optical receiver implemented in chartered 0.35 μm process achieves a 1.7 GHz bandwidth due to the low capacitance of the MSM photodetector. 2 Gb/s optical data are successfully transmitted with a bit-error rate of 10 9 at an optical power of 15 dBm. The power consumption of the receiver is 94 mW under a single 3.3 V supply.
A Schistosoma japonicum chimeric protein with a novel adjuvant induced a polarized Th1 immune response and protection against liver egg burdens
Xindong Xu, Dongmei Zhang, Wei Sun, Qingfeng Zhang, Jingjing Zhang, Xiangyang Xue, Luhui Shen, Weiqing Pan
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-9-54
Abstract: The immunogencity and protection efficacy of chimeric proteins were evaluated in mice. Next, the chimeric protein SjGP-3 was selected and formulated in various adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206, IMS 1312 and ISA 70M. The titers of antigen-specific IgG, IgE and IgG subclass were measured. The effect of adjuvant on cytokine production and percentages of CD3+CD8-IFN-γ+ cells and CD3+CD8-IL-4+ cells were analyzed at different time points. Worm burdens and liver egg counts in different adjuvant groups were counted to evaluate the protection efficacy against cercarial challenge.Immunization of mice with chimeric proteins provided various levels of protection. Among the four proteins, SjGP-3 induced the highest level of protection, and showed enhanced protective efficacy compared with its individual component Sj26GST. Because of this, SjGP-3 was further formulated in various adjuvants to investigate the effect of adjuvant on immune deviation. The results revealed that SjGP-3 formulated in veterinary adjuvant ISA 70M induced a lasting polarized Th1 immune response, whereas the other adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206 and IMS 1312, generated a moderate mixed Th1/Th2 response after immunization but all except for IMS 1312 shifted to Th2 response after onset of eggs. More importantly, the SjGP-3/70M formulation induced a significant reduction in liver egg deposition at 47.0–50.3% and the number of liver eggs per female at 34.5–37.2% but less effect on worm burdens at only 17.3–23.1%, whereas no effect of the formulations with other adjuvants on the number of liver eggs per female was observed.Construction of polyvalent subunit vaccine was capable to enhance immunogenicity and protection efficacy against schistosomiasis. There was correlation of the polarized Th1 response with reduction of liver egg burdens, supporting the immune deviation strategy for schistosomiasis japonica vaccine development.Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the world,
A Frame Based Architecture for Information Integration in CIMS
Wu,Xindong
计算机科学技术学报 , 1992,
Abstract: This paper foumulates and architecture for information integration in computer integrated manufacturing systems(CIMS).The architecture takes the frame structure as single link among applications and between applications and physical storage.All the advantages in form features based intgrated systems can be found in the frame-based architecture as the frame structrue here takes from features as its primitives.But other advantage,e.g.,default knowledge and dynamic domain knowledge can be attached to frames and the frame structure is easy to be changed and extended,which cannot be found ing form reatures based systems,can also be showed in frame based architectures as the frame structure is a typical knowledge representation scheme in artificial intelligence and many researches and interests have put on it.
Inductive learning
Inductive Learning

Wu Xindong,
Wu
,Xindong

计算机科学技术学报 , 1993,
Abstract: Machine learning(ML)is a major subfield of artificial intelligence(AI).It has been seen as a feasi- ble way of avoiding the knowledge bottleneck problem in knowledge-based systems development.Re- search on ML has concentrated in the main on inductive learning,a paradigm for inducing rules from unordered sets of exmaples.AQ11 and ID3,the two most widespread algorithms in ML,are both induc- tive.This paper first summarizes AQ11,ID3 and the newly-developed extension matrix approach based HCV algorithm;and then reviews the recent development of inductive learing and automatic knowledge acquisition from data bases.
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