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Paisajes arqueológicos y territorialidad en la zona Centro Sur de Chile. Recuento actualizado de la historia prehispánica del área ubicada entre Tirúa y Valdivia
Ximena Navarro
Cultura-Hombre-Sociedad , 2004, DOI: 10.7770/cuhso-v8n1-art204
Abstract: Investigaciones arqueológicas recientes en el área de Tirúa a Valdivia entregan una historia prehispánica compleja desde el Holoceno temprano, 9500 A.P. hasta el tardío, 1300 D.C. Estas ocupaciones dan cuenta de paisajes arqueológicos espacialmente referenciados en: zona precordillerana lacustre; valle intermedio y costa. La periodificación de estos se establece mediante la adscripción a Complejos ya reconocidos del Arcaico Medio y del Alfarero para sitios arqueológicos relevantes. Ocupaciones humanas y estrategias adaptativas persistentes argumentan la idea de conformación de una temprana territorialidad en la zona.
Human exploitation of seabirds in coastal southern Chile during the mid-Holocene
SIMEONE,ALEJANDRO; NAVARRO,XIMENA;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2002000200012
Abstract: we analyzed a collection of 738 bird bones, representing a minimum of 71 individuals, found in a settlement of hunter-gatherers from the mid-holocene, 5,000 years bp, in the coastal locality of chan chan, southern chile. the camp was inhabited for over ca. 500 years, during which time a steady hunting pressure on the local marine resources was exerted, particularly on seabirds. the most abundant taxon (bones/number of individuals) was the red-legged cormorant phalacrocorax gaimardi (551/44) which was also the prey which provided the highest edible proportion of body mass. albatrosses thalassarche cf. melanophris (103/12) and shearwaters puffinus cf. griseus (20/5) were secondary prey. cormorants were presumably hunted at their breeding colonies (which are still present in the area) so it is probable that egging also occurred. because they are pelagic, albatrosses could have been hunted at sea, but the adequate technology for this (boats, hooks) is not apparent in the archaeological record. the bird assemblage obtained in the sample does not qualitatively differ from that of the present, indicating a reasonable stability in species richness from the considered period until the present. the high diversity of coastal resources in chan chan was likely important in leading to the, at least seasonal, occupation of these areas by hunter-gatherers and also may have encouraged the development of the adequate technology for the exploitation of these resources
Human exploitation of seabirds in coastal southern Chile during the mid-Holocene Explotación humana de aves marinas durante el Holoceno medio en la costa del sur de Chile
ALEJANDRO SIMEONE,XIMENA NAVARRO
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2002,
Abstract: We analyzed a collection of 738 bird bones, representing a minimum of 71 individuals, found in a settlement of hunter-gatherers from the mid-Holocene, 5,000 years BP, in the coastal locality of Chan Chan, southern Chile. The camp was inhabited for over ca. 500 years, during which time a steady hunting pressure on the local marine resources was exerted, particularly on seabirds. The most abundant taxon (bones/number of individuals) was the red-legged cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi (551/44) which was also the prey which provided the highest edible proportion of body mass. Albatrosses Thalassarche cf. melanophris (103/12) and shearwaters Puffinus cf. griseus (20/5) were secondary prey. Cormorants were presumably hunted at their breeding colonies (which are still present in the area) so it is probable that egging also occurred. Because they are pelagic, albatrosses could have been hunted at sea, but the adequate technology for this (boats, hooks) is not apparent in the archaeological record. The bird assemblage obtained in the sample does not qualitatively differ from that of the present, indicating a reasonable stability in species richness from the considered period until the present. The high diversity of coastal resources in Chan Chan was likely important in leading to the, at least seasonal, occupation of these areas by hunter-gatherers and also may have encouraged the development of the adequate technology for the exploitation of these resources Se analizaron 738 restos óseos de aves, correspondientes a un mínimo de 71 individuos, encontrados en un asentamiento de cazadores-recolectores del Holoceno medio, 5.000 a os AP, en la localidad costera de Chan Chan, sur de Chile. El campamento fue habitado durante al menos 500 a os, tiempo durante el cual se ejerció una presión de caza persistente sobre los recursos marinos locales, particularmente las aves marinas. El taxón más numeroso (restos/ número de individuos) fue el lile Phalacrocorax gaimardi (551/44) que además fue la presa comestible más aprovechable. Albatros Thalassarche cf. melanophris. (103/12) y fardelas Puffinus cf. griseus (20/5) fueron presas secundarias. Los cormoranes fueron presumiblemente cazados en sus colonias reproductivas (las que aún existen en la zona) por lo que es probable que también se hayan consumido los huevos. Por sus hábitos pelágicos, los albatros pudieron haber sido cazados en el mar, aunque la tecnología necesaria para ello (botes, anzuelos) aún no ha sido demostrada en el registro arqueológico. El ensamble avifaunístico de la muestra no difiere cualitativamente del
Explotación y uso de los recursos marinos y patrones de residencia entre los mapuches: Algunas implicaciones preliminares para la arqueología
Dillehay Tom D.,Navarro Ximena
Maguaré , 2003,
Abstract: N.A.
UNA MIRADA AL MODO DE VIDA CANOERO DEL MAR INTERIOR DESDE PIEDRA AZUL
Nelson Gaete,Ximena Navarro,Florence Constantinescu,Carlos Mera
Chungará (Arica) - Revista de Antropología Chilena , 2004,
Abstract: Se presentan los primeros resultados obtenidos en la investigación del sitio arqueológico 10 PM 014 "Conchal Piedra Azul", campamento base de poblaciones canoeras, el cual muestra un depósito formado por una sucesión de ocupaciones superpuestas, que refieren a un modo de vida cazador-pescador-recolector de gran persistencia a través del tiempo The first results obtained from archaeological excavation at 10 PM 014 site "Conchal Piedra Azul" are presented. This is a base camp of canoeists prehistoric populations that consist of a shell midden deposit, formed by superimposed occupations. The cultural material shows a hunting-gathering & fishing way of life (ca. 5.000 cal. BP.- to late prehistoric time).
NUEVA FUENTE DE OBSIDIANA EN LA REGIóN DE LA ARAUCANíA, CENTRO-SUR DE CHILE: QUíMICA Y CONTEXTO ARQUEOLóGICO DE LA OBSIDIANA RIOLíTICA NEGRA DE LOS NEVADOS DE SOLLIPULLI
STERN,CHARLES R; NAVARRO H,XIMENA; PINO N,JIMENA D; VEGA S.M.,RODRIGO M.;
Magallania (Punta Arenas) , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-22442008000200014
Abstract: a dome of black rhyolite obsidian outcrops among other volcanic rocks at south latitude 38.97716° and west longitude 71.63528°, within the nevados de sollipulli, west of the sollipulli volcano and south of the town of melipeuco in south-central chile. worked fragments of this same obsidian are found at the surface in a number of archaeological sites in the área. this obsidian is both visually and chemically distinct from translucent grey-green derived from the chaitén volcano further south in the andean chain.
FUENTES Y DISTRIBUCIóN DE DIFERENTES TIPOS DE OBSIDIANAS EN SITIOS ARQUEOLóGICOS DEL CENTRO-SUR DE CHILE (38-44°S)
STERN,CHARLES R; GARCíA,CHRISTIAN; NAVARRO,XIMENA; MU?OZ,JORGE;
Magallania (Punta Arenas) , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-22442009000100015
Abstract: thirty-?ve samples of obsidian from two coastal sites (chan chan-18 north of valdivia and puente quilo in chiloé) and six inland terrestrial-hunter gatherer sites (alero cabeza de indio-1, fundo tres arroyos-1, flor del lago-1, los riscos-1, quillen-1 and granaderos-2) in south-central chile were analyzed, by icp-ms techniques, to determine their trace-element chemistry for comparison with obsidian from know source in the area. the obsidian samples differ in color and include black (23 samples), grey (3 samples), translucent (5 samples) and red (4 samples) types. for the 23 black samples, 3 have chemistry that does not correspond to any know source, while the other 20, including 2 samples from chan chan-18 and all 3 from puente quilo, are chemically similar to black obsidian (mel) from a source in the nevados de sollipulli. three grey samples from chan chan-18 are similar to obsidian from chaitén volcano (ch). the 5 translucent and 4 red samples are all similar to each other and to type pc1 obsidian that occurs as ?uvial transported cobbles along arroyo covunco east of the andean cordillera in central neuquén, argentina. however, this obsidian may have its primary source closer to the andean drainage divide in the volcanic belt that extend southwest from copahue caldera through pino hachado to palao mahuida caldera and queli mahuida cone just north of paso de icalma. this is the lowest elevation pass (1,298 m) in this area and the probable path for the entrance of this obsidian form argentina into chile. the fact that all the samples derived from the relatively remote pc1 obsidian source (>70 km) are visually distinctive translucent and red suggest that this distinctly colored obsidian may have had some aesthetic value relative to the more local (<30 km) and more easily accessible black mel obsidian from nevados de sollipulli.
Factores asociados a síntomas depresivos y síntomas somáticos en mujeres climatéricas de la ciudad de Temuco
Illanes V,Eduardo; Bustos M,Luis; Lagos P,Ximena; Navarro H,Nancy; Mu?oz N,Sergio;
Revista médica de Chile , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872002000800007
Abstract: background: depression is an important mental health problem. the chilean ministry of health has considered depression in women as one of the health priorities for the country. aim: to assess the prevalence of depressive and somatic symptoms and their risk factors in climacteric women. material and methods: a special questionnaire was applied to 171 women (45 to 55 years of age), coming from a community organization (prodemu) and a private health institution (isapre banmedica). risk factors for depression were determined using multiple logistic regression. results: the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 43%. women with primary education had an odds ratio for depression of 2.49, compared with women with high school or university education. other risk factor for depression was the lack of a remunerated job (odds ratio 1.9). the risk factors for somatic symptoms were the presence of depressive symptoms (or 3.2), lack of secondary or university education (or 2.4), low income (or 1.9) and having a current partner (or 3.6). conclusions: there is a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in the studied population of climacteric women. lack of education and of a remunerated job are important risk factors for the presence of such symptoms. women with a low level of education and with depressive symptoms have also a high risk of presenting somatic symptoms (rev méd chile 2002; 130: 885-91)
FUENTES Y DISTRIBUCIóN DE DIFERENTES TIPOS DE OBSIDIANAS EN SITIOS ARQUEOLóGICOS DEL CENTRO-SUR DE CHILE (38-44°S) SOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF OBSIDIAN FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN CENTRAL-SOUTH CHILE (38-44°S)
CHARLES R STERN,CHRISTIAN GARCíA,XIMENA NAVARRO,JORGE MU?OZ
Magallania , 2009,
Abstract: Fueron analizadas, por medio de la técnica ICP-MS, 35 muestras de obsidianas provenientes de dos sitios arqueológicos costeros (Chan Chan-18 al norte de Valdivia y Puente Quilo en Chiloé) y de seis sitios continentales de cazadores-recolectores (Alero Cabeza de Indio-1, Fundo Tres Arroyos-1, Flor del Lago-1, Los Riscos-1, Quillén-1 y Granaderos-2) del centro-sur de Chile, con el n de determinar la composición química de elementos trazas para así poder compararlas con obsidiana de fuentes conocidas en la zona. Las obsidianas estudiadas son de diferentes colores e incluyen obsidiana negra (23 muestras), gris (3 muestras), translucida (5 muestras) y roja (4 muestras). De las 23 muestras de obsidiana negra, 3 tienen composición química que no corresponde a ninguna fuente de obsidiana conocida, mientras que las 20 restantes, que incluyen 2 muestras de Chan Chan-18 y 3 provenientes de Puente Quilo, son químicamente similares a la obsidiana negra (tipo MEL) de una fuente en los Nevados de Sollipulli. Las 3 muestras grises de Chan Chan-18 son semejantes a la obsidiana del Volcán Chaitén (tipo CH). Las 5 muestras translucidas y las 4 rojas son composicionalmente similar a obsidiana tipo PC1 que ocurre como rodados uviales transportados a lo largo del Arroyo Covunco al este de la Cordillera Andina, en Neuquén central, Argentina. Sin embargo, esta obsidiana PC1 podría tener una fuente primaria más cercana a la divisoria de aguas en los Andes en el cinturón volcánico que se extiende al sureste desde la Caldera Copahue pasando por Pino Hachado hasta la Caldera Palao Mahuida y el cono Queli Mahuida inmediatamente al norte del Paso de Icalma. Este es el paso fronterizo que tiene la menor altura en la zona (1298 msnm) y pudo ser el lugar por donde circuló esta obsidiana hacia el occidente. El hecho que todas las muestras derivadas desde la relativamente remota (>70 km) fuente de obsidiana PC1 sean vsualmente distintivas, translucidas y rojas, sugiere que estas obsidianas de colores distintivos presentaban mayor valor estético en comparación con la obsidiana negra MEL, más común y de origen más local (<30 km) en los Nevados de Sollipulli. Thirty- ve samples of obsidian from two coastal sites (Chan Chan-18 north of Valdivia and Puente Quilo in Chiloé) and six inland terrestrial-hunter gatherer sites (Alero Cabeza de Indio-1, Fundo Tres Arroyos-1, Flor del Lago-1, Los Riscos-1, Quillen-1 and Granaderos-2) in south-central Chile were analyzed, by ICP-MS techniques, to determine their trace-element chemistry for comparison with obsidian from know source in the area. The ob
NUEVA FUENTE DE OBSIDIANA EN LA REGIóN DE LA ARAUCANíA, CENTRO-SUR DE CHILE: QUíMICA Y CONTEXTO ARQUEOLóGICO DE LA OBSIDIANA RIOLíTICA NEGRA DE LOS NEVADOS DE SOLLIPULLI NEW OBSIDIAN SOURCE IN THE ARAUCANíA REGIóN (SOUTH CENTRAL CHILE): CHEMICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT OF THE BLACK RIOLITIC OBSIDIAN FROM THE NEVADOS DE SOLLIPULLI
CHARLES R STERN,XIMENA NAVARRO H,JIMENA D PINO N,RODRIGO M. VEGA S.M.
Magallania , 2008,
Abstract: Un domo de obsidiana negra de composición riolítica aflora entre otras rocas volcánicas en la latitud 38.97716° sur y longitud 71.63528° oeste, en los Nevados de Sollipulli, al oeste del Volcán Sollipulli y al sur del pueblo de Melipeuco en el centro-sur de Chile. Se encuentran fragmentos trabajados de esta misma obsidiana en la superficie de varios sitios arqueológicos de la zona. Esta obsidiana es distinguible visual y químicamente de la obsidiana translúcida gris-verdosa derivada del Volcán Chaitén situado más al sur en la cadena Andina. A dome of black rhyolite obsidian outcrops among other volcanic rocks at south latitude 38.97716° and west longitude 71.63528°, within the Nevados de Sollipulli, west of the Sollipulli volcano and south of the town of Melipeuco in south-central Chile. Worked fragments of this same obsidian are found at the surface in a number of archaeological sites in the área. This obsidian is both visually and chemically distinct from translucent grey-green derived from the Chaitén volcano further south in the Andean chain.
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