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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 36696 matches for " Xiaoqiu Xiao "
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Horizontal transfer generates genetic variation in an asexual pathogen
Xiaoqiu Huang
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.650
Abstract: There are major gaps in the understanding of how genetic variation is generated in the asexual pathogen Verticillium dahliae. On the one hand, V. dahliae is a haploid organism that reproduces clonally. On the other hand, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and chromosomal rearrangements were found between V. dahliae strains. Lineage-specific (LS) regions comprising about 5% of the genome are highly variable between V. dahliae strains. Nonetheless, it is unknown whether horizontal gene transfer plays a major role in generating genetic variation in V. dahliae. Here, we analyzed a previously sequenced V. dahliae population of nine strains from various geographical locations and hosts. We found highly homologous elements in LS regions of each strain; LS regions of V. dahliae strain JR2 are much richer in highly homologous elements than the core genome. In addition, we discovered, in LS regions of JR2, several structural forms of nonhomologous recombination, and two or three homologous sequence types of each form, with almost each sequence type present in an LS region of another strain. A large section of one of the forms is known to be horizontally transferred between V. dahliae strains. We unexpectedly found that 350 kilobases of dynamic LS regions were much more conserved than the core genome between V. dahliae and a closely related species (V. albo-atrum), suggesting that these LS regions were horizontally transferred recently. Our results support the view that genetic variation in LS regions is generated by horizontal transfer between strains, and by chromosomal reshuffling reported previously.
Association between Experiences and Representations: Memory, Dreaming, Dementia and Consciousness
Xiaoqiu Huang
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: The mechanisms underlying major aspects of the human brain remain a mystery. It is unknown how verbal episodic memory is formed and integrated with sensory episodic memory. There is no consensus on the function and nature of dreaming. Here we present a theory for governing neural activity in the human brain. The theory describes the mechanisms for building memory traces for entities and explains how verbal memory is integrated with sensory memory. We infer that a core function of dreaming is to move charged particles such as calcium ions from the hippocampus to association areas to primary areas. We link a high level of calcium ions concentrations to Alzheimer's disease. We present a more precise definition of consciousness. Our results are a step forward in understanding the function and health of the human brain and provide the public with ways to keep a healthy brain.
Obesity Induced by Neonatal Overfeeding Worsens Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation
Zehui Ye, Ying Huang, Dan Liu, Xiaoyi Chen, Dongjuan Wang, Daochao Huang, Li Zhao, Xiaoqiu Xiao
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047013
Abstract: Background Obesity is a risk factor for the development of certain respiratory diseases, and neonatal overfeeding results in an early onset of obesity in adulthood. However, the influence of neonatal overfeeding on respiratory diseases has rarely been studied. Therefore, this paper is aimed at investigating the effect of neonatal overfeeding on airway responsiveness and inflammation. Methodology/Principal Findings The neonatal overfeeding was induced by reducing litter size to three pups per litter (small litter, SL) in contrast to the normal litter size with ten pups per litter (NL) on postnatal day 3 (P3) in male ICR mice. On P21, mice were weaned to standard chow diet. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was measured either on P21 or P150. Total and classified inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted, lung inflammatory cells were evaluated through staining with hematoxylin & eosin and F4/80 immunohistochemistry; lung fibrosis was evaluated through staining with Masson and α-SAM immunohistochemistry. Leptin levels in serum were measured by RIA; TNF-α levels in serum and BALF were quantified by ELISA; mRNA levels of TNF-α, CTGF and TGF-β1 in lung tissues were measured using real-time PCR. Mice from SL exhibited accelerated body weight gain, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperleptinemia. Enhanced airway responsiveness to methacholine was observed in SL mice on P150, but not on P21. Pulmonary inflammation was evident in SL mice on P150, as reflected by inflammatory cells especially macrophages around bronchi and interstitium. BALF and serum TNF-α levels and lung TNF-α mRNA expression were significantly increased in SL mice on P150. More collagen accumulated surrounding the bronchi on P150; lung mRNA levels of TGF-β1 and CTGF were also increased on P150. Conclusion In addition to inducing a variety of metabolic defects, neonatal overfeeding enhanced lung inflammation, which may lead to airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness in adulthood.
Some General Inequalities for Choquet Integral  [PDF]
Xiuli Yang, Xiaoqiu Song, Leilei Huang
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.614201
Abstract: With the development of fuzzy measure theory, the integral inequalities based on Sugeno integral are extensively investigated. We concern on the inequalities of Choquuet integral. The main purpose of this paper is to prove the H?lder inequality for any arbitrary fuzzy measure-based Choquet integral whenever any two of these integrated functions f, g and h are comonotone, and there are three weights. Then we prove Minkowski inequality and Lyapunov inequality for Choquet integral. Moreover, when any two of these integrated functions f1, f2, , fn are comonotone, we also obtain the Hölder inequality, Minkowski inequality and Lyapunov inequality hold for Choquet integral.
Severe Maternal Hyperglycemia Exacerbates the Development of Insulin Resistance and Fatty Liver in the Offspring on High Fat Diet
Yong Song,Jibin Li,Yong Zhao,Qijuan Zhang,Zhiguo Liu,Jingna Li,Xiaoyi Chen,Zhu Yang,Chao Yu,Xiaoqiu Xiao
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/254976
Abstract: Background. Adverse maternal environments may predispose the offspring to metabolic syndrome in adulthoods, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. Methods. Maternal hyperglycemia was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection while control (CON) rats received citrate buffer. Litters were adjusted to eight pups per dam and then weaned to standard diet. Since 13 weeks old, a subset of offspring from STZ and CON dams were switched to high fat diet (HFD) for another 13 weeks. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT and ITT) and insulin secretion assay were performed; serum levels of lipids and leptin were measured. Hepatic fat accumulation and islet area were evaluated through haematoxylin and eosin staining. Results. STZ offspring exhibited lower survival rate, lower birth weights, and growth inhibition which persisted throughout the study. STZ offspring on HFD showed more severe impairment in GTT and ITT, and more profound hepatic steatosis and more severe hyperlipidemia compared with CON-HFD rats. Conclusions. Offspring from diabetic dams would be prone to exhibit low birth weight and postnatal growth inhibition, but could maintain normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. HFD accelerates development of insulin resistance in the offspring of diabetic dams mainly via a compensatory response of islets.
Severe Maternal Hyperglycemia Exacerbates the Development of Insulin Resistance and Fatty Liver in the Offspring on High Fat Diet
Yong Song,Jibin Li,Yong Zhao,Qijuan Zhang,Zhiguo Liu,Jingna Li,Xiaoyi Chen,Zhu Yang,Chao Yu,Xiaoqiu Xiao
Journal of Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/254976
Abstract: Background. Adverse maternal environments may predispose the offspring to metabolic syndrome in adulthoods, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. Methods. Maternal hyperglycemia was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection while control (CON) rats received citrate buffer. Litters were adjusted to eight pups per dam and then weaned to standard diet. Since 13 weeks old, a subset of offspring from STZ and CON dams were switched to high fat diet (HFD) for another 13 weeks. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT and ITT) and insulin secretion assay were performed; serum levels of lipids and leptin were measured. Hepatic fat accumulation and islet area were evaluated through haematoxylin and eosin staining. Results. STZ offspring exhibited lower survival rate, lower birth weights, and growth inhibition which persisted throughout the study. STZ offspring on HFD showed more severe impairment in GTT and ITT, and more profound hepatic steatosis and more severe hyperlipidemia compared with CON-HFD rats. Conclusions. Offspring from diabetic dams would be prone to exhibit low birth weight and postnatal growth inhibition, but could maintain normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. HFD accelerates development of insulin resistance in the offspring of diabetic dams mainly via a compensatory response of islets. 1. Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of metabolic disorders including hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, overweight, and central obesity, with insulin resistance as the central feature of this syndrome [1]. A global increase in the prevalence of MetS has been found in the last decades due to the worldwide epidemic of obesity [2, 3]. The risk of the MetS depends on genetic susceptibility but is modulated by pre- and postnatal environmental factors. A growing body of evidence suggests that adverse environmental conditions during crucial periods of development may predispose individuals to develop different components of the MetS in adulthood [4]. Of particular note is maternal diabetes, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). An overall increasing prevalence of diabetes indicates an emergence of diabetes among childbearing women. During pregnancy, especially during critical window periods for organogenesis and fetal development, unsatisfactory glycemic control is known to increase the incidence of severe obstetrical complications, including preeclampsia, macrosomia, and Caesarean section. Additionally, intrauterine exposure to a hyperglycemic environment predisposes
A method for finding single-nucleotide polymorphisms with allele frequencies in sequences of deep coverage
Jianmin Wang, Xiaoqiu Huang
BMC Bioinformatics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-6-220
Abstract: We describe a computational method for finding common SNPs with allele frequencies in single-pass sequences of deep coverage. The method enhances a widely used program named PolyBayes in several aspects. We present results from our method and PolyBayes on eighteen data sets of human expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with deep coverage. The results indicate that our method used almost all single-pass sequences in computation of the allele frequencies of SNPs.The new method is able to handle single-pass sequences of deep coverage efficiently. Our work shows that it is possible to analyze sequences of deep coverage by using pairwise alignments of the sequences with the finished genome sequence, instead of multiple sequence alignments.Information concerning the allele frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is needed to select an optimal subset of common SNPs for use in association studies [1]. One approach to finding common SNPs with allele frequencies is to generate DNA sequences from a sufficient number of samples in a population. This approach requires that computational methods have an ability to handle thousands of sequences from the same genome location (sequences of deep coverage). In this paper, we describe a computational method for finding common SNPs with allele frequencies in sequences of deep coverage. We present results from the method on human expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of deep coverage, which are currently a major source of DNA sequences of deep coverage. The method is also expected to be useful for finding common mutations in sequences of deep coverage produced in a cancer genome project [2].The PolyBayes program is widely used to find SNPs in redundant DNA sequences [3,4]. It first constructs a multiple sequence alignment based on pairwise alignments of each sequence with a high-quality genomic sequence called an anchor. Then it identifies and removes paralogous sequences that have a high number of observed differences with the anchor s
CMHX008, a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Partial Agonist, Enhances Insulin Sensitivity In Vitro and In Vivo
Yue Ming, Xiangnan Hu, Ying Song, Zhiguo Liu, Jibin Li, Rufei Gao, Yuyao Zhang, Hu Mei, Tingwang Guo, Ling Xiao, Bochu Wang, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102102
Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Its ligand rosiglitazone has anti-diabetic effect but is frequently accompanied with some severe unwanted effects. The aim of the current study was to compare the anti-diabetic effect of CMHX008, a novel thiazolidinedione-derivative, with rosiglitazone. A luciferase assay was used to evaluate in vitro PPARγ activation. 3T3-L1 cells were used to examine adipocyte differentiation. High fat diet (HFD) mice were used to examine in vivo insulin sensitivity. The mRNA levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Serum biochemical and hormonal variables were assessed using a clinical chemistry analyser. CMHX008 displayed a moderate PPARγ agonist activity, and promoted 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation with lower activity than rosiglitazone. CMHX008 regulated the expression of PPARγ target genes in a different manner from rosiglitazone. CMHX008 increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin with the similar efficacy as rosiglitazone, but only 25% as potent as rosiglitazone for the induction of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein. Treatment of CMHX008 and rosiglitazone protected mice from high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and inflammation. CMHX008 reduced the mRNA expression of M1 macrophage markers, and significantly increased the expressions of M2 markers. In conclusion, CMHX008 shared the comparable insulin-sensitizing effects as rosiglitazone with lower adipogenic capacity and might potentially be developed into an effective agent for the treatment of diabetes and metabolic disorders.
Establishment of the Academic Value Judging System of the Science and Research Works
科研论著学术价值评估体系亟待建立

Tong Xiaoqiu,
仝晓秋

中国科技期刊研究 , 2000,
Abstract: 人事部门的职评工作与年度考核工作改革的深化,呼唤科研成果和学术论著的科学合理透明及时且可操作性强的精确的学术价值评判体系,并最终实现这两项工作的科学的动态管理。
Pollution Characteristics of PM2.5 during a Typical Haze Episode in Xiamen, China  [PDF]
Fuwang Zhang, Jinsheng Chen, Tianxue Qiu, Liqian Yin, Xiaoqiu Chen, Jianshuan Yu
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.34044
Abstract:

In this study, mass concentrations and chemical compositions of fine particles, mass concentrations of coarse particles, light extinction, and meteorological parameters in the atmosphere ofXiamenwere presented and analyzed to study the chemical and optical characteristics of a typical haze episode from Dec 25, 2010 to Jan 1, 2011. The major chemical compositions of PM2.5, such as water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs), carbonaceous fractions (mainly composed of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)), and elements were determined. The results showed that with the typical haze episode process, the concentrations of PM2.5 mass, WSIIs, OC, EC, and TE first increased and then decreased. The average concentrations of PM2.5 mass in the stages of Before Haze, During Haze, and After Haze were (88.80 ± 19.97), (135.41 ± 36.20), and (96.35 ± 36.26) μg/m3, respectively. The corresponding average concentrations of secondary organic carbon (SOC) were 6.72, 8.18, and 10.39 μg/m3, accounting for 46.5%, 27.0%, and 61.0% of OC, respectively. S42- , NO3-, and NH4+ were three major WSIIs species, accounting for 31.4%, 26.0%, and 12.1% of total WSIIs. The major elements in PM2.5 were S, K, Fe, Zn, Pb, Ti, and Mn, covering 97.9% of the total elements, while the percentage of the other ten elements was only 2.1%. The average value of light extinction coefficients (bext) was 371.0 ±147.1 Mm-1 during the typical haze episode. The average percentage contributions to bext were 39.3% for organic mass, 19.9% for elemental carbon, 16.0% for ammonium sulfate, 13.0% for coarse mass, and 11.8% for ammonium nitrate.

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