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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 24103 matches for " Xiaoping Liang "
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Reversible Authentication Watermark for Image
Xiaoping Liang
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2008,
Language as Investment, Capital, and Economics: Spanish-Speaking English Learners’ Language Use and Attitudes
Xiaoping Liang
International Journal of English Linguistics , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijel.v2n6p1
Abstract: Drawing on the notion of investment in language and identity, the concept of language as capital, and the theory of language as part of economics, this study explores California high-school Spanish-speaking English learners’ use of Spanish and English at home, at school, and in the ESL class, and their perceptions on these two languages. Analysis of 37 survey responses reveals that the participants did not have an either-or attitude toward the languages they spoke and concurrently claimed frequent use of and even fluency in the societal language and their heritage language. They did not have a simplistic notion of linguistic identity and simultaneously claimed the English-speaking identity, the Spanish-speaking identity, and the bilingual identity. The results indicate that, rather than a sign of second language insufficiency, bilingual language use in and outside of the ESL class served as an intentional investment in language development and maintenance, identity construction, and preparation for participation in the multilingual marketplace in the internationalized new economy. ESL instructors are encouraged to recognize and acknowledge the role of bilingual language use in class and to create a supportive classroom environment that builds on the linguistic and cultural capital of English learners and fosters the development of both languages into literate, academic and professional capacity.
Teaching Language and Content: Instructor Strategies in a Bilingual Science Class at a Chinese University
Xiaoping Liang,Sara W. Smith
International Journal of Higher Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/ijhe.v1n2p92
Abstract: This research explores the role of English as a medium of instruction and a focus of learning in a bilingual science class taught in Chinese and English as a foreign language. It examines how the instructor handles meaning and form of new English science vocabulary in concept-focused physics lectures and the strategies he uses in doing so. Analysis of classroom instructional discourse demonstrates that the instructor took an integrative approach in dealing with the meaning-form association of new science vocabulary. He employed a variety of strategies to lighten vocabulary load and to increase comprehensibility of physics lectures. The results indicate that there is a place for language instruction in bilingual science classes. Bilingual science instructors are encouraged to integrate language with the subject matter they teach and provide students opportunities for simultaneous development of content and language.
Overexpression of ARAhPR10, a Member of the PR10 Family, Decreases Levels of Aspergillus flavus Infection in Peanut Seeds  [PDF]
Chunzheng Xie, Shijie Wen, Haiyan Liu, Xiaoping Chen, Haifen Li, Yanbin Hong, Xuanqiang Liang
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.43079
Abstract: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most susceptible host crops to Aspergillus flavus invasion and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. In this report, a new member of PR10 family putative resistant gene (designated as ARAhPR10, No. EU661964.1) encoding a PR10 protein was isolated and characterized. Analysis of qRT-PCR showed that the expression of ARAhPR10 was induced by pre-harvested A. flavus infection, but no significant difference was observed between resistant genotype GT-C20” and susceptible genotype Yueyou 7”. Seven transgenic peanut lines expressing the ARAhPR10 gene under the control of 35S promoter were obtained using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Cloning, Expression Pattern Analysis and Subcellular Localization of Resveratrol Synthase Gene in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  [PDF]
Fanghe Zhu, Jingluan Han, Shumei Liu, Xiaoping Chen, Rajeev K. Varshney, Xuanqiang Liang
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.524378
Resveratrol synthase (RS) is a key enzyme that plays a critical role in the resveratrol synthesis pathway. In this study, six RS genes were isolated and characterized from peanut variety “Zhenzhu Hong” by silico cloning and RT-PCR. Bioinformatics analysis showed that deduced amino acid sequences of the six cloned RS genes were highly conserved with a similarity from 95% to 99% when compared to the RS genes which had been deposited at the GenBank. The results of amino acid sequences analysis showed six RS proteins contained the Chal_Sti_Synt_N and ACP_Syn_III_C domains and can be classified to same family but with different evolutionary distance. Expression pattern analysis by QRT-PCR provided evidence indicating that the mRNA of six RS genes were primarily expressed in the peanut shell at different developmental stages with different expression levels, but only lower levels of them were evident in the peanut kernel. The subcellular localization of RS protein in onion epidermal cell was performed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and the green fluorescent was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The results indicated that, RS1 and RS5 were located in the nucleus and plasma membrane respectively, while the RS2, RS3, RS4 and RS6 were located in both nucleus inner membrane and plasma membrane. The data will provide basic information for elucidating the regulatory mechanisms and enzyme kinetics underlying the RS genes in the resveratrol synthase pathway.
Rethinking the China-US Balance of Trade: 1990-2005  [PDF]
Xiaoping Xu
iBusiness (IB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2012.41006
Abstract: Since 1993, American trade deficit with China is expanding and the gap is becoming increasingly bigger. The widening bilateral trade imbalance has caused growing concerns. This paper, by using empirical method and adjusting the data of trade from 1989 to 2005, finds that the causes of the imbalance of China-US trade are as follows: 1) the imbalance of domestic demands of US; 2) the adjustment of American economic structure, and 3) the growing of multinational enterprises. The paper also finds that the imbalance of China-US trade is not as big as it was reported by US; the imbalance of China-US trade is an inevitable result of economic development, and the trade deficit does not necessarily mean a loss of profit. In fact, American investors and consumers have greatly benefited from China-US trade.
Comparison of Four Methods for Handing Missing Data in Longitudinal Data Analysis through a Simulation Study  [PDF]
Xiaoping Zhu
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.411088
Abstract: Missing data can frequently occur in a longitudinal data analysis. In the literature, many methods have been proposed to handle such an issue. Complete case (CC), mean substitution (MS), last observation carried forward (LOCF), and multiple imputation (MI) are the four most frequently used methods in practice. In a real-world data analysis, the missing data can be MCAR, MAR, or MNAR depending on the reasons that lead to data missing. In this paper, simulations under various situations (including missing mechanisms, missing rates, and slope sizes) were conducted to evaluate the performance of the four methods considered using bias, RMSE, and 95% coverage probability as evaluation criteria. The results showed that LOCF has the largest bias and the poorest 95% coverage probability in most cases under both MAR and MCAR missing mechanisms. Hence, LOCF should not be used in a longitudinal data analysis. Under MCAR missing mechanism, CC and MI method are performed equally well. Under MAR missing mechanism, MI has the smallest bias, smallest RMSE, and best 95% coverage probability. Therefore, CC or MI method is the appropriate method to be used under MCAR while MI method is a more reliable and a better grounded statistical method to be used under MAR.
Identification of seed proteins associated with resistance to pre-harvested aflatoxin contamination in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L)
Tong Wang, Erhua Zhang, Xiaoping Chen, Ling Li, Xuanqiang Liang
BMC Plant Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-267
Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify resistance-associated proteins in response to A. flavus infection under drought stress using two-dimensional electrophoresis with mass spectrometry. To identify proteins involved in the resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination, we compared the differential expression profiles of seed proteins between a resistant cultivar (YJ-1) and a susceptible cultivar (Yueyou 7) under well-watered condition, drought stress, and A. flavus infection with drought stress. A total of 29 spots showed differential expression between resistant and susceptible cultivars in response to A. flavus attack under drought stress. Among these spots, 12 protein spots that consistently exhibited an altered expression were screened by Image Master 5.0 software and successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Five protein spots, including Oso7g0179400, PII protein, CDK1, Oxalate oxidase, SAP domain-containing protein, were uniquely expressed in the resistant cultivar. Six protein spots including low molecular weight heat shock protein precursor, RIO kinase, L-ascorbate peroxidase, iso-Ara h3, 50 S ribosomal protein L22 and putative 30 S ribosomal S9 were significantly up-regulated in the resistant cultivar challenged by A. flavus under drought stress. A significant decrease or down regulation of trypsin inhibitor caused by A. flavus in the resistant cultivar was also observed. In addition, variations in protein expression patterns for resistant and susceptible cultivars were further validated by real time RT-PCR analysis.In summary, this study provides new insights into understanding of the molecular mechanism of resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination in peanut, and will help to develop peanut varieties with resistance to pre-harvested aflatoxin contamination.Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of most important and widespread oil crops. One of the major problems in peanut production worldwide is aflatoxin contamination, which is of great co
Performance Evaluation and Kinematic Calibration For Hybrid 5DOF Manipulator Based on 3-RPS Parallel Mechanism
A.Y. Elatta,Fan Liang Zhi,Li XiaoPing
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: This study considers the practical performance of a 5DOF manipulator based on 3-RPS parallel mechanism. A calibration method has been put forward and proved to be applicable. The main advantage of our method is that no extra measuring instruments are neededand the measurement accuracy does not need to be very high, although the higher the measurement accuracy the better the calibrated result we would have. And it is observed that 50 times of measurement is enough for the application discussed.
Resveratrol Protects Chondrocytes from Apoptosis via Altering the Ultrastructural and Biomechanical Properties: An AFM Study
Hua Jin, Qian Liang, Tongsheng Chen, Xiaoping Wang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091611
Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint disease with high prevalence among older people, occurs from molecular or nanometer level and extends gradually to higher degrees of the ultrastructure of cartilage, finally resulting in irreversible structural and functional damages. This report aims to use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the protective effects of resveratrol (RV), a drug with good anti-inflammatory properties, on cellular morphology, membrane architecture, cytoskeleton, cell surface adhesion and stiffness at nanometer level in sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced apoptotic chondrocytes, a typical cellular OA model. CCK-8 assay showed that 100 μM RV significantly prevented SNP-induced cytotoxicity. AFM imaging and quantitative analysis showed that SNP potently induced chondrocytes changes including shrunk, round, lamellipodia contraction and decrease in adherent junctions among cells, as well as the destruction of biomechanics: 90% decrease in elasticity and 30% decrease in adhesion. In addition, confocal imaging analysis showed that SNP induced aggregation of the cytoskeleton and decrease in the expression of cytoskeletal proteins. More importantly, these SNP-induced damages to chondrocytes could be potently prevented by RV pretreatment. Interestingly, the biomechanical changes occurred before morphological changes could be clearly observed during SNP-induced apoptosis, indicating that the biomechanics of cellular membrane may be a more robust indicator of cell function. Collectively, our data demonstrate that RV prevents SNP-induced apoptosis of chondrocytes by regulating actin organization, and that AFM-based technology can be developed into a powerful and sensitive method to study the interaction mechanisms between chondrocytes and drugs.
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