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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12544 matches for " Xiaojun Kang equal contributor "
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Hypersensitive to Red and Blue 1 and Its Modification by Protein Phosphatase 7 Are Implicated in the Control of Arabidopsis Stomatal Aperture
Xiaodong Sun equal contributor,Xiaojun Kang equal contributor,Min Ni
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002674
Abstract: The stomatal pores are located on the plant leaf epidermis and regulate CO2 uptake for photosynthesis and the loss of water by transpiration. Their stomatal aperture therefore affects photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and agricultural crop yields. Blue light, one of the environmental signals that regulates the plant stomatal aperture, is perceived by the blue/UV-A light-absorbing cryptochromes and phototropins. The signal transduction cascades that link the perception of light to the stomatal opening response are still largely unknown. Here, we report two new players, Hypersensitive to Red and Blue 1 (HRB1) and Protein Phosphatase 7 (PP7), and their genetic and biochemical interactions in the control of stomatal aperture. Mutations in either HRB1 or PP7 lead to the misregulation of the stomatal aperture and reduce water loss under blue light. Both HRB1 and PP7 are expressed in the guard cells in response to a light-to-dark or dark-to-light transition. HRB1 interacts with PP7 through its N-terminal ZZ-type zinc finger motif and requires a functional PP7 for its stomatal opening response. HRB1 is phosphorylated in vivo, and PP7 can dephosphorylate HRB1. HRB1 is mostly dephosphorylated in a protein complex of 193 kDa in the dark, and blue light increases complex size to 285 kDa. In the pp7 mutant, this size shift is impaired, and HRB1 is predominately phosphorylated. We propose that a modification of HRB1 by PP7 under blue light is essential to acquire a proper conformation or to bring in new components for the assembly of a functional HRB1 protein complex. Guard cells control stomatal opening in response to multiple environmental or biotic stimuli. This study may furnish strategies that allow plants to enjoy the advantages of both constitutive and ABA-induced protection under water-limiting conditions.
MicroRNA-133 Inhibits Behavioral Aggregation by Controlling Dopamine Synthesis in Locusts
Meiling Yang equal contributor,Yuanyuan Wei equal contributor,Feng Jiang equal contributor,Yanli Wang,Xiaojiao Guo,Jing He,Le Kang
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004206
Abstract: Phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and primarily controlled by interactions between environmental and genetic factors. The migratory locust, a worldwide pest, exhibits pronounced phenotypic plasticity, which is a population density-dependent transition that occurs between the gregarious and solitary phases. Genes involved in dopamine synthesis have been shown to regulate the phase transition of locusts. However, the function of microRNAs in this process remains unknown. In this study, we report the participation of miR-133 in dopamine production and the behavioral transition by negatively regulating two critical genes, henna and pale, in the dopamine pathway. miR-133 participated in the post-transcriptional regulation of henna and pale by binding to their coding region and 3′ untranslated region, respectively. miR-133 displayed cellular co-localization with henna/pale in the protocerebrum, and its expression in the protocerebrum was negatively correlated with henna and pale expression. Moreover, miR-133 agomir delivery suppressed henna and pale expression, which consequently decreased dopamine production, thus resulting in the behavioral shift of the locusts from the gregarious phase to the solitary phase. Increasing the dopamine content could rescue the solitary phenotype, which was induced by miR-133 agomir delivery. Conversely, miR-133 inhibition increased the expression of henna and pale, resulting in the gregarious-like behavior of solitary locusts; this gregarious phenotype could be rescued by RNA interference of henna and pale. This study shows the novel function and modulation pattern of a miRNA in phenotypic plasticity and provides insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of the phase transition of locusts.
OsHUS1 Facilitates Accurate Meiotic Recombination in Rice
Lixiao Che equal contributor,Kejian Wang equal contributor,Ding Tang equal contributor,Qiaoquan Liu equal contributor,Xiaojun Chen,Yafei Li,Qing Hu,Yi Shen,Hengxiu Yu,Minghong Gu,Zhukuan Cheng
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004405
Abstract: Meiotic recombination normally takes place between allelic sequences on homologs. This process can also occur between non-allelic homologous sequences. Such ectopic interaction events can lead to chromosome rearrangements and are normally avoided. However, much remains unknown about how these ectopic interaction events are sensed and eliminated. In this study, using a screen in rice, we characterized a homolog of HUS1 and explored its function in meiotic recombination. In Oshus1 mutants, in conjunction with nearly normal homologous pairing and synapsis, vigorous, aberrant ectopic interactions occurred between nonhomologous chromosomes, leading to multivalent formation and subsequent chromosome fragmentation. These ectopic interactions relied on programed meiotic double strand breaks and were formed in a manner independent of the OsMER3-mediated interference-sensitive crossover pathway. Although early homologous recombination events occurred normally, the number of interference-sensitive crossovers was reduced in the absence of OsHUS1. Together, our results indicate that OsHUS1 might be involved in regulating ectopic interactions during meiosis, probably by forming the canonical RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex.
Meta-Analysis Identifies Gene-by-Environment Interactions as Demonstrated in a Study of 4,965 Mice
Eun Yong Kang equal contributor,Buhm Han equal contributor,Nicholas Furlotte equal contributor,Jong Wha J. Joo,Diana Shih,Richard C. Davis,Aldons J. Lusis ?,Eleazar Eskin ?
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004022
Abstract: Identifying environmentally-specific genetic effects is a key challenge in understanding the structure of complex traits. Model organisms play a crucial role in the identification of such gene-by-environment interactions, as a result of the unique ability to observe genetically similar individuals across multiple distinct environments. Many model organism studies examine the same traits but under varying environmental conditions. For example, knock-out or diet-controlled studies are often used to examine cholesterol in mice. These studies, when examined in aggregate, provide an opportunity to identify genomic loci exhibiting environmentally-dependent effects. However, the straightforward application of traditional methodologies to aggregate separate studies suffers from several problems. First, environmental conditions are often variable and do not fit the standard univariate model for interactions. Additionally, applying a multivariate model results in increased degrees of freedom and low statistical power. In this paper, we jointly analyze multiple studies with varying environmental conditions using a meta-analytic approach based on a random effects model to identify loci involved in gene-by-environment interactions. Our approach is motivated by the observation that methods for discovering gene-by-environment interactions are closely related to random effects models for meta-analysis. We show that interactions can be interpreted as heterogeneity and can be detected without utilizing the traditional uni- or multi-variate approaches for discovery of gene-by-environment interactions. We apply our new method to combine 17 mouse studies containing in aggregate 4,965 distinct animals. We identify 26 significant loci involved in High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, many of which are consistent with previous findings. Several of these loci show significant evidence of involvement in gene-by-environment interactions. An additional advantage of our meta-analysis approach is that our combined study has significantly higher power and improved resolution compared to any single study thus explaining the large number of loci discovered in the combined study.
CSP and Takeout Genes Modulate the Switch between Attraction and Repulsion during Behavioral Phase Change in the Migratory Locust
Wei Guo equal contributor,Xianhui Wang equal contributor,Zongyuan Ma,Liang Xue,Jingyao Han,Dan Yu,Le Kang
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001291
Abstract: Behavioral plasticity is the most striking trait in locust phase transition. However, the genetic basis for behavioral plasticity in locusts is largely unknown. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the behavioral phase change in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, the gene expression patterns over the time courses of solitarization and gregarization were compared by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Data analysis revealed that several gene categories relevant to peripheral olfactory perception are strongly regulated in a total of 1,444 differentially expressed genes during both time courses. Among these candidate genes, several CSP (chemosensory protein) genes and one takeout gene, LmigTO1, showed higher expression in gregarious and solitarious locusts, respectively, and displayed opposite expression trends during solitarization and gregarization. qRT-PCR experiments revealed that most CSP members and LmigTO1 exhibited antenna-rich expressions. RNA interference combined with olfactory behavioral experiments confirmed that the CSP gene family and one takeout gene, LmigTO1, are involved in the shift from repulsion to attraction between individuals during gregarization and in the reverse transition during solitarization. These findings suggest that the response to locust-emitted olfactory cues regulated by CSP and takeout genes is involved in the behavioral phase change in the migratory locust and provide a previously undescribed molecular mechanism linked to the formation of locust aggregations.
Regulatory Variation at Glypican-3 Underlies a Major Growth QTL in Mice
Fiona Oliver equal contributor,Julian K Christians equal contributor ,Xiaojun Liu,Susan Rhind,Vinesh Verma,Claire Davison,Steve D. M Brown,Paul Denny,Peter D Keightley
PLOS Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030135
Abstract: The genetic basis of variation in complex traits remains poorly understood, and few genes underlying variation have been identified. Previous work identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) responsible for much of the response to selection on growth in mice, effecting a change in body mass of approximately 20%. By fine-mapping, we have resolved the location of this QTL to a 660-kb region containing only two genes of known function, Gpc3 and Gpc4, and two other putative genes of unknown function. There are no non-synonymous polymorphisms in any of these genes, indicating that the QTL affects gene regulation. Mice carrying the high-growth QTL allele have approximately 15% lower Gpc3 mRNA expression in kidney and liver, whereas expression differences at Gpc4 are non-significant. Expression profiles of the two other genes within the region are inconsistent with a factor responsible for a general effect on growth. Polymorphisms in the 3′ untranslated region of Gpc3 are strong candidates for the causal sequence variation. Gpc3 loss-of-function mutations in humans and mice cause overgrowth and developmental abnormalities. However, no deleterious side-effects were detected in our mice, indicating that genes involved in Mendelian diseases also contribute to complex trait variation. Furthermore, these findings show that small changes in gene expression can have substantial phenotypic effects.
Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Caused by Streptococcus suis Serotype 2
Jiaqi Tang equal contributor ,Changjun Wang equal contributor,Youjun Feng equal contributor,Weizhong Yang equal contributor,Huaidong Song equal contributor,Zhihai Chen equal contributor,Hongjie Yu equal contributor,Xiuzhen Pan,Xiaojun Zhou,Huaru Wang,Bo Wu,Haili Wang,Huamei Zhao,Ying Lin,Jianhua Yue,Zhenqiang Wu,Xiaowei He,Feng Gao,Abdul Hamid Khan,Jian Wang,Guo-Ping Zhao,Yu Wang ,Xiaoning Wang ,Zhu Chen,George F Gao
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030151
Abstract: Background Streptococcus suis serotype 2 ( S. suis 2, SS2) is a major zoonotic pathogen that causes only sporadic cases of meningitis and sepsis in humans. Most if not all cases of Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) that have been well-documented to date were associated with the non-SS2 group A streptococcus (GAS). However, a recent large-scale outbreak of SS2 in Sichuan Province, China, appeared to be caused by more invasive deep-tissue infection with STSS, characterized by acute high fever, vascular collapse, hypotension, shock, and multiple organ failure. Methods and Findings We investigated this outbreak of SS2 infections in both human and pigs, which took place from July to August, 2005, through clinical observation and laboratory experiments. Clinical and pathological characterization of the human patients revealed the hallmarks of typical STSS, which to date had only been associated with GAS infection. Retrospectively, we found that this outbreak was very similar to an earlier outbreak in Jiangsu Province, China, in 1998. We isolated and analyzed 37 bacterial strains from human specimens and eight from pig specimens of the recent outbreak, as well as three human isolates and two pig isolates from the 1998 outbreak we had kept in our laboratory. The bacterial isolates were examined using light microscopy observation, pig infection experiments, multiplex-PCR assay, as well as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and multiple sequence alignment analyses. Multiple lines of evidence confirmed that highly virulent strains of SS2 were the causative agents of both outbreaks. Conclusions We report, to our knowledge for the first time, two outbreaks of STSS caused by SS2, a non-GAS streptococcus. The 2005 outbreak was associated with 38 deaths out of 204 documented human cases; the 1998 outbreak with 14 deaths out of 25 reported human cases. Most of the fatal cases were characterized by STSS; some of them by meningitis or severe septicemia. The molecular mechanisms underlying these human STSS outbreaks in human beings remain unclear and an objective for further study.
Unique Evolution of the UPR Pathway with a Novel bZIP Transcription Factor, Hxl1, for Controlling Pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans
Seon Ah Cheon equal contributor,Kwang-Woo Jung equal contributor,Ying-Lien Chen,Joseph Heitman,Yong-Sun Bahn ,Hyun Ah Kang
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002177
Abstract: In eukaryotic cells, the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway plays a crucial role in cellular homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during exposure to diverse environmental conditions that cause ER stress. Here we report that the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has evolved a unique UPR pathway composed of an evolutionarily conserved Ire1 protein kinase and a novel bZIP transcription factor encoded by HXL1 (HAC1 and XBP1-Like gene 1). C. neoformans HXL1 encodes a protein lacking sequence homology to any known fungal or mammalian Hac1/Xbp1 protein yet undergoes the UPR-induced unconventional splicing in an Ire1-dependent manner upon exposure to various stresses. The structural organization of HXL1 and its unconventional splicing is widely conserved in C. neoformans strains of divergent serotypes. Notably, both C. neoformans ire1 and hxl1 mutants exhibited extreme growth defects at 37°C and hypersensitivity to ER stress and cell wall destabilization. All of the growth defects of the ire1 mutant were suppressed by the spliced active form of Hxl1, supporting that HXL1 mRNA is a downstream target of Ire1. Interestingly, however, the ire1 and hxl1 mutants showed differences in thermosensitivity, expression patterns for a subset of genes, and capsule synthesis, indicating that Ire1 has both Hxl1-dependent and -independent functions in C. neoformans. Finally, Ire1 and Hxl1 were shown to be critical for virulence of C. neoformans, suggesting UPR signaling as a novel antifungal therapeutic target.
Regulation of Early Adipose Commitment by Zfp521
Sona Kang,Peter Akerblad equal contributor,Riku Kiviranta equal contributor,Rana K. Gupta,Shingo Kajimura,Michael J. Griffin,Jie Min,Roland Baron,Evan D. Rosen
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001433
Abstract: While there has been significant progress in determining the transcriptional cascade involved in terminal adipocyte differentiation, less is known about early events leading to lineage commitment and cell fate choice. It has been recently discovered that zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) is an early actor in adipose determination. Here, we show that a close paralog of Zfp423, Zfp521, acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Zfp521 exerts its actions by binding to early B cell factor 1 (Ebf1), a transcription factor required for the generation of adipocyte progenitors, and inhibiting the expression of Zfp423. Overexpression of Zfp521 in cells greatly inhibits adipogenic potential, whereas RNAi-mediated knock-down or genetic ablation of Zfp521 enhances differentiation. In addition, Zfp521?/? embryos exhibit increased mass of interscapular brown adipose tissue and subcutaneous white adipocytes, a cell autonomous effect. Finally, Ebf1 participates in a negative feedback loop to repress Zfp521 as differentiation proceeds. Because Zfp521 is known to promote bone development, our results suggest that it acts as a critical switch in the commitment decision between the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages.
HopW1 from Pseudomonas syringae Disrupts the Actin Cytoskeleton to Promote Virulence in Arabidopsis
Yongsung Kang equal contributor,Joanna Jelenska equal contributor ,Nicolas M. Cecchini,Yujie Li,Min Woo Lee,David R. Kovar,Jean T. Greenberg
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004232
Abstract: A central mechanism of virulence of extracellular bacterial pathogens is the injection into host cells of effector proteins that modify host cellular functions. HopW1 is an effector injected by the type III secretion system that increases the growth of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae on the Columbia accession of Arabidopsis. When delivered by P. syringae into plant cells, HopW1 causes a reduction in the filamentous actin (F-actin) network and the inhibition of endocytosis, a known actin-dependent process. When directly produced in plants, HopW1 forms complexes with actin, disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and inhibits endocytosis as well as the trafficking of certain proteins to vacuoles. The C-terminal region of HopW1 can reduce the length of actin filaments and therefore solubilize F-actin in vitro. Thus, HopW1 acts by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton and the cell biological processes that depend on actin, which in turn are needed for restricting P. syringae growth in Arabidopsis.
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