Accurate estimation of the double-bounce scattering fd and surface scattering fs coefficients with Freeman-Durden decomposition is still difficult. This difficulty arises because overestimation of the volume scattering energy contribution Pv leads to negative values for fd and fs. A generalized residual model is introduced to estimate fd and fs. The relationship between Pv and the residual model is analyzed. Eigenvalues computed from the residual model must be positive to explain physical scattering mechanisms. The authors employ a new volumetric scattering model to minimize Pv as calculated by several decomposition methods. It is concluded that decreasing Pv can help reduce negative energy. This conclusion is validated using actual polarimetric SAR data.
Because of lack of collateral and
formal financial information, family aquacultures and small boat owners find it
difficult to get loans from formal financial institutions. Fishery microfinance can partly solve the information asymmetry and incomplete
contract problems in rural financial market, and it is an effective complement to
formal fishery finance. The service object of fishery microfinance is mainly micro-enterprises
in fisheries, including family aquacultures and small fishing boats. Fishery microfinance
providers include formal financial institutions and many kinds of micro-financial
institutions, among which China Fishery Mutual Insurance Association (FMIA) is the
most famous one. Although micro-finance has a 20-year-history in China, there are
still some problems that block its advance. The market is huge, but the existing
providers are not providing good services and most are not sustainable. There is
still a long way towards commercial operation and financial sustainability.