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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 127023 matches for " Xiangrui Li "
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Effects of pattern shape on adaptation of dLGN cell
Jianzhong Jin,Pengjing Xu,Xiangrui Li,Yifeng Zhou
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2003, DOI: 10.1360/03wc0058
Abstract: Pattern adaptation is one of the fundamental sensory processes in the visual system. In this study, we compared pattern adaptation induced by two types of sinusoidal drifting grating in dLGN cells of cat. The two types of grating have the same parameters (e.g. spatial frequency, temporal frequency and contrast) except their pattern shapes, one of which is normal grating and the other annular grating. The results suggested that the annular grating elicited stronger response and stronger pattern adaptation than the normal grating. This is consistent with the adaptation and aftereffect to the two types of drifting gratings seen in psychology and may reflect the subcortical neural mechanism underlying these psychological phenomena.
Ultrastructural Characterization of Olfactory Sensilla and Immunolocalization of Odorant Binding and Chemosensory Proteins from an Ectoparasitoid Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)
Xiangrui Li, Daguang Lu, Xiaoxia Liu, Qingwen Zhang, Xuguo Zhou
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The three-dimensional structures of two odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and one chemosensory protein (CSP) from a polyphagous ectoparasitoid Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) were resolved bioinformatically. The results show that both SguaOBP1 and OBP2 are classic OBPs, whereas SguaCSP1 belongs to non-classic CSPs which are considered as the “Plus-C” CSP in this report. The structural differences between the two OBPs and between OBP and CSP are thoroughly described, and the structural and functional significance of the divergent C-terminal regions (e.g., the prolonged C-terminal region in SguaOBP2 and the additional pair of cysteines in SguaCSP1) are discussed. The immunoblot analyses with antisera raised against recombinant SguaOBP1, OBP2, and CSP1, respectively, indicate that two SguaOBPs are specific to antennae, whereas SguaCSP1, which are more abundant than OBPs and detected in both male and female wasps, expresses ubiquitously across different tissues. We also describe the ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla types in S. guani and compare them to 19 species of parasitic Hymenoptera. There are 11 types of sensilla in the flagellum and pedicel segments of antennae in both male and female wasps. Seven of them, including sensilla placodea (SP), long sensilla basiconica (LSB), sensilla coeloconica (SC), two types of double-walled wall pore sensilla (DWPS-I and DWPS-II), and two types of sensilla trichodea (ST-I and ST-II), are multiporous chemosensilla. The ultralsturctures of these sensilla are morphologically characterized. In comparison to monophagous specialists, the highly polyphagous generalist ectoparasitoids such as S. guani possess more diverse sensilla types which are likely related to their broad host ranges and complex life styles. Our immunocytochemistry study demonstrated that each of the seven sensilla immunoreacts with at least one antiserum against SguaOBP1, OBP2, and CSP1, respectively. Anti-OBP2 is specifically labeled in DWPS-II, whereas the anti-OBP1 shows a broad spectrum of immunoactivity toward four different sensilla (LSB, SP, ST-I and ST-II). On the other hand, anti-CSP1 is immunoactive toward SP, DWPS-I and SC. Interestingly, a cross co-localization pattern between SguaOBP1 and CSP1 is documented for the first time. Given that the numbers of OBPs and CSPs in many insect species greatly outnumber their antennal sensilla types, it is germane to suggest such phenomenon could be the rule rather than the exception.
A Multi-Method Approach to Curriculum Development for In-Service Training in China’s Newly Established Health Emergency Response Offices
Yadong Wang, Xiangrui Li, Yiwen Yuan, Mahomed S. Patel
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100892
Abstract: Objective To describe an innovative approach for developing and implementing an in-service curriculum in China for staff of the newly established health emergency response offices (HEROs), and that is generalisable to other settings. Methods The multi-method training needs assessment included reviews of the competency domains needed to implement the International Health Regulations (2005) as well as China’s policies and emergency regulations. The review, iterative interviews and workshops with experts in government, academia, the military, and with HERO staff were reviewed critically by an expert technical advisory panel. Findings Over 1600 participants contributed to curriculum development. Of the 18 competency domains identified as essential for HERO staff, nine were developed into priority in-service training modules to be conducted over 2.5 weeks. Experts from academia and experienced practitioners prepared and delivered each module through lectures followed by interactive problem-solving exercises and desktop simulations to help trainees apply, experiment with, and consolidate newly acquired knowledge and skills. Conclusion This study adds to the emerging literature on China’s enduring efforts to strengthen its emergency response capabilities since the outbreak of SARS in 2003. The multi-method approach to curriculum development in partnership with senior policy-makers, researchers, and experienced practitioners can be applied in other settings to ensure training is responsive and customized to local needs, resources and priorities. Ongoing curriculum development should reflect international standards and be coupled with the development of appropriate performance support systems at the workplace for motivating staff to apply their newly acquired knowledge and skills effectively and creatively.
Simpler Online Updates for Arbitrary-Order Central Moments
Xiangrui Meng
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: Statistical moments are widely used in descriptive statistics. Therefore efficient and numerically stable implementations are important in practice. Pebay [1] derives online update formulas for arbitrary-order central moments. We present a simpler version that is also easier to implement.
Isoflurane-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment in Mice is Prevented by the Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Donepezil
Diansan Su, Yanxing Zhao, Beilei Wang, Huan Xu, Wen Li, Jie Chen, Xiangrui Wang
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027632
Abstract: Although many studies have shown that isoflurane exposure impairs spatial memory in aged animals, there are no clinical treatments available to prevent this memory deficit. The anticholinergic properties of volatile anesthetics are a biologically plausible cause of cognitive dysfunction in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that pretreatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, prevents isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. In present study, eighteen-month-old mice were administered donepezil (5 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline by oral gavage with a feeding needle for four weeks. Then the mice were exposed to isoflurane (1.2%) for six hours. Two weeks later, mice were subjected to the Morris water maze to examine the impairment of spatial memory after exposure to isoflurane. After the behavioral test, the mice were sacrificed, and the protein expression level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetylase (ChAT) and α7 nicotinic receptor (α7-nAChR) were measured in the brain. Each group consisted of 12 mice. We found that isoflurane exposure for six hours impaired the spatial memory of the mice. Compared with the control group, isoflurane exposure dramatically decreased the protein level of ChAT, but not AChE or α7-nAChR. Donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairments and increased ChAT levels, which were downregulated by isoflurane. In conclusions, pretreatment with the AChE inhibitor donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. The mechanism was associated with the upregulation of ChAT, which was decreased by isoflurane.
Transcription Profiles of Eimeria tenella Apical Membrane Antigen Gene, Etama
Nanshan Qi,Mingfei Sun,Caiyan Wu,Shenquan Liao,Minna Lv,Xiangrui Li,Jianping Cai
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.1312.1315
Abstract: The invasion of Apicomplaxan parasite Eimeria tenella is a multistep process, after attaching the host cell, the tight junction complex is formed by proteins secreted from apical organelles, rhoptry (RONs) and microneme (Apical Membrane Antigen, AMA) between the parasite and host cell plasma membranes which is named as Moving Juction (MJ) and through which the parasite pulls itself into the host cell. In this study, researchers have used real-time quantitative RT-PCR to study the transcription profiles of Etama gene for the 1st time on eimeria parasites. The results showed that the transcription of Etama gene reached a peak during the sporozoites stage but it was very low during all other stages which is different from other Apicomplex parasites Etama1 gene. So maybe there are other AMA family proteins in the Eimeria tenella which play a key role in the different stages, respectively.
Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Teleconnection in the Troposphere during the Northern Hemisphere Winter at the End of the 1970s

CAO Jie,LI Xiangrui,YING Jun,

大气科学 , 2012,
Abstract: Using the NOAA monthly reanalysis geopotential height on 500 hPa, the sea surface temperature (SST), the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index and the triple mode of North Atlantic SST anomaly (ATM)index from 1950 to 2008, the temporal and spatial evolution of teleconnection in the troposphere during the Northern Hemisphere winter at the end of the 1970s is studied with correlation analysis method, Mann-Kendall analysis method, and coherence wavelet analysis method. The results indicate that the spatial distributions and temporal evolutions of Pacific-North American (PNA), Eurasia-Pacific (EUP), West Pacific (WP), and West Atlantic (WA) teleconnection patterns change significantly at the end of the 1970s. The spatial distribution changes are found in the intensity and range of abnormal centers of these teleconnection patterns. On temporal evolution, the upward tendency of PNA and WP indexes and the downward tendency of EUP and WA indexes are also found. After the end of the 1970s, the key SST areas impacting on the 5 teleconnection patterns during the Northern Hemisphere winter have changed, in which those areas impacting on the EUP, and those areas in the Pacific impacting on WA have significantly decreased; those areas in the middle and southern Atlantic impacting on EA have obviously changed. On the time scale above 16 years, the variation of PDO is the main reason which leads to the variation of PNA, EUP, WP, and WA teleconnection patterns; the variation of ATM is the main reason which leads to the variation of WA and EA teleconnection patterns during the Northern Hemisphere winter.
曹杰 CAO Jie,李湘瑞 LI Xiangrui,应俊 YING Jun
大气科学 , 2012, DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2011.11044
Abstract: 应用NOAA提供的1950~2008年月平均500hPa高度场再分析资料、海表温度、太平洋年代际振荡(PDO)指数和大西洋三极模(ATM)指数,研究了20世纪70年代末前后北半球冬季对流层遥相关的时空演变规律。相关分析、Mann-Kendall分析和凝聚小波分析的结果表明,20世纪70年代末以来,太平洋—北美(PNA)型、欧亚(EUP)型、西太平洋(WP)型和西大西洋(WA)型四种遥相关空间分布和时间演变产生较为显著的变化。空间分布的变化既体现在遥相关正、负异常中心的强度上,也体现在正、负异常的范围上;时间演变方面的变化则体现在PNA和WP遥相关指数具有上升趋势,EUP和WA遥相关指数具有一定下降趋势。20世纪70年代末以来,影响北半球冬季5种遥相关型的海温关键区均有所改变。其中,各大洋上影响EUP遥相关型的海温关键区面积显著缩小,影响WA遥相关型的太平洋海温关键区面积显著缩小,影响EA遥相关型海温关键区在北大西洋中南部改变明显;在16年以上时间尺度上,PDO变化是造成北半球冬季PNA、EUP、WP三种遥相关型变化的主要原因;ATM变化是造成北半球冬季WA和EA两种遥相关型变化的主要原因。
Research on Coal Seam Floor Water Inrush Monitoring Based on Perception of IoT Coupled with GIS  [PDF]
Xiangrui Meng, Junhao Wang, Zhaoning Gao
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.48061
Abstract: To the complication and uncertainty in coal seam floor water-inrush monitoring, Internet of Things (IoT) perception is applied to the monitoring and controlling of coal seam floor water inrush with major impacting factors analyzed, and an open distribution information processing platform is constructed based on IoT-GIS coupling perception. Then using the platform to comprehensively perceive various floor water inrush impacting parameters, an AHP model is established. At this stage, by means of weight reasoning algorithm based on dynamic Bayesian network, the AHP weight can be worked out using the two-way probability transfer and chain rules. Then the multiple factors are spatially fused by GIS to form a non-linear mathematical model for the calculation of the water inrush relative probability index. After that, the discrimination threshold of the comb graph for the floor water inrush relative probability index is used to further identify the floor water inrush mode. The experiments in 10# Coal Seam of Suntuan Mine show that, the accuracy perceived the floor water inrush is above 92%, and the platform of IoT-GIS coupling perception has the obvious technical advantage than traditional monitoring technology. Therefore, it has has demonstrated strong systematic robustness, important theoretical and application significance.
Accelerating Nesterov's Method for Strongly Convex Functions with Lipschitz Gradient
Xiangrui Meng,Hao Chen
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We modify Nesterov's constant step gradient method for strongly convex functions with Lipschitz continuous gradient described in Nesterov's book. Nesterov shows that $f(x_k) - f^* \leq L \prod_{i=1}^k (1 - \alpha_k) \| x_0 - x^* \|_2^2$ with $\alpha_k = \sqrt{\rho}$ for all $k$, where $L$ is the Lipschitz gradient constant and $\rho$ is the reciprocal condition number of $f(x)$. Hence the convergence rate is $1-\sqrt{\rho}$. In this work, we try to accelerate Nesterov's method by adaptively searching for an $\alpha_k > \sqrt{\rho}$ at each iteration. The proposed method evaluates the gradient function at most twice per iteration and has some extra Level 1 BLAS operations. Theoretically, in the worst case, it takes the same number of iterations as Nesterov's method does but doubles the gradient calls. However, in practice, the proposed method effectively accelerates the speed of convergence for many problems including a smoothed basis pursuit denoising problem.
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