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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 176548 matches for " Xiang-Yu Wang "
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Probing the structure of the outflow in the tidal disruption flare Sw J1644+57 with long-term radio emission
Di Cao,Xiang-Yu Wang
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/761/2/111
Abstract: The recently discovered high-energy transient Sw J1644+57 is thought to arise from the tidal disruption of a passing star by a dormant massive black hole. The long-term, bright radio emission of Sw J1644+57 is believed to result from the synchrotron emission of the blast wave produced by an outflow expanding into the surrounding medium. Using the detailed multi-epoch radio spectral data, we are able to determine the total number of radiating electrons in the outflow at different times, and further the evolution of the cross section of the outflow with time. We find that the outflow gradually transits from a conical jet to a cylindrical one at later times. The transition may be due to collimation of the outflow by the pressure of the shocked jet cocoon that forms while the outflow is propagating in the ambient medium. Since cylindrical jets usually exist in AGNs and extragalactic jets, this may provide independent evidence that Sw J1644+57 signals the onset of an AGN.
Spectrum and Composition of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays from Semi-relativistic Hypernovae
Ruo-Yu Liu,Xiang-Yu Wang
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/746/1/40
Abstract: It has been suggested that hypernova remnants, with a substantial amount of energy in semi-relativistic ejecta, can accelerate intermediate mass or heavy nuclei to ultra-high energies and provide sufficient amount of energy in cosmic rays to account for the observed flux. We here calculate the expected energy spectrum and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from such semi-relativistic hypernovae. With a chemical composition equal to that of the hypernova ejecta and a flat or hard spectrum for cosmic rays at the sources, the spectrum and composition of the propagated cosmic rays observed at the Earth can be compatible with the measurements by the Pierre Auger Observatory.
On the origin of >10 GeV photons in gamma-ray burst afterglows
Xiang-Yu Wang,Ruo-Yu Liu,Martin Lemoine
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/771/2/L33
Abstract: Fermi/LAT has detected long-lasting high-energy photons (>100 MeV) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with the highest energy photons reaching about 100 GeV. One proposed scenario is that they are produced by high-energy electrons accelerated in GRB forward shocks via synchrotron radiation. We study the maximum synchrotron photon energy in this scenario, considering the properties of the microturbluence magnetic fields behind the shock, as revealed by recent Particle-in-Cell simulations and theoretical analyses of relativistic collisionless shocks. Due to the small-scale nature of the micro-turbulent magnetic field, the Bohm acceleration approximation breaks down at such high energies. This effect leads to a typical maximum synchrotron photon of a few GeV at 100 s after the burst and this maximum synchrotron photon energy decreases quickly with time. We show that the fast decrease of the maximum synchrotron photon energy leads to a fast decay of the synchrotron flux. The 10-100 GeV photons detected after the prompt phase can not be produced by the synchrotron mechanism. They could originate from the synchrotron self-Compton emission of the early afterglow if the circum-burst density is sufficiently large, or from the external inverse-Compton process in the presence of central X-ray emission, such as X-ray flares and prompt high-latitude X-ray emission.
Modeling the broadband emission of Fermi/LAT GRB 090902B
Ruo-Yu Liu,Xiang-Yu Wang
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/730/1/1
Abstract: GRB 090902B, detected by Fermi Large Array Telescope (Fermi/LAT), shows extend high-energy emission (>100 MeV) up to 10^3 s after the burst, which decays with time in a power-law as t^{-1.5}. It has been also observed by several follow-up low-energy instruments, including an early optical detection around 5000 s after the burst. The optical emission at early time decays faster than t^{-1.6}, which has been suspected to originate from the reverse shock. We here explore the models that can possibly explain the the broadband afterglow emission of GRB 090902B. We find that the reverse shock model for the early optical emission would overpredict the radio afterglow flux that is inconsistent with observations. A partially radiative blast wave model, which though is able to produce a sufficiently steep decay slope, can not explain the broadband data of GRB 090902B. The two-component jet model, which consists of a narrow and bright jet component in the core and a surrounding wider and less energetic jet component, is shown to be able to explain the broadband afterglow data, including the LAT high-energy data after ~50 s and low-energy (radio, optical and X-ray) afterglow data. The early-time high-energy emission detected by LAT before ~50 s is likely due to internal origin as that of the sub-MeV emission. The highest energy (33 GeV) photon of GRB090902B detected at 80 s can be marginally accommodated within the forward shock emission under the optimistic condition that electrons are accelerated by the Bohm diffusive shock.
Constraining the Emissivity of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays in the Distant Universe with the Diffuse Gamma-ray Emission
Xiang-Yu Wang,Ruo-Yu Liu,Felix Aharonian
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/736/2/112
Abstract: Ultra-high cosmic rays (UHECRs) with energies >10^19 eV emitted at cosmological distances will be attenuated by cosmic microwave and infrared background radiation through photohadronic processes. Lower energy extra-galactic cosmic rays (~10^18-10^19 eV) can only travel a linear distance smaller than ~Gpc in a Hubble time due to the diffusion if the extra-galactic magnetic fields are as strong as nano Gauss. These prevent us from directly observing most of the UHECRs in the universe, and thus the observed UHECR intensity reflects only the emissivity in the nearby universe within hundreds of Mpc. However, UHECRs in the distant universe, through interactions with the cosmic background photons, produce UHE electrons and gamma-rays that in turn initiate electromagnetic cascades on cosmic background photons. This secondary cascade radiation forms part of the extragalactic diffuse GeV-TeV gamma-ray radiation and, unlike the original UHECRs, is observable. Motivated by new measurements of extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background radiation by Fermi/LAT, we obtained upper limits placed on the UHECR emissivity in the distant universe by requiring that the cascade radiation they produce not exceed the observed levels. By comparison with the gamma-ray emissivity of candidate UHECR sources (such as GRBs and AGNs) at high-redshifts, we find that the obtained upper limit for a flat proton spectrum is ~10^1.5 times larger than the gamma-ray emissivity in GRBs and ~10 times smaller than the gamma-ray emissivity in BL Lac objects. In the case of iron nuclei composition, the derived upper limit of the UHECR emissivity is a factor of 3-5 times higher. Robust upper limit on the cosmogenic neutrino flux is further obtained, which is marginally reachable by the Icecube detector and the next-generation detector JEM-EUSO.
Diffuse PeV neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts
Ruo-Yu Liu,Xiang-Yu Wang
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/73
Abstract: The IceCube collaboration recently reported the potential detection of two cascade neutrino events in the energy range 1-10 PeV. We study the possibility that these PeV neutrinos are produced by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), paying special attention to the contribution by untriggered GRBs that elude detection due to their low photon flux. Based on the luminosity function, rate distribution with redshift and spectral properties of GRBs, we generate, using Monte-Carlo simulation, a GRB sample that reproduce the observed fluence distribution of Fermi/GBM GRBs and an accompanying sample of untriggered GRBs simultaneously. The neutrino flux of every individual GRBs is calculated in the standard internal shock scenario, so that the accumulative flux of the whole samples can be obtained. We find that the neutrino flux in PeV energies produced by untriggered GRBs is about 2 times higher than that produced by the triggered ones. Considering the existing IceCube limit on the neutrino flux of triggered GRBs, we find that the total flux of triggered and untriggered GRBs can reach at most a level of ~10^-9 GeV cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1, which is insufficient to account for the reported two PeV neutrinos. Possible contributions to diffuse neutrinos by low-luminosity GRBs and the earliest population of GRBs are also discussed.
Prompt TeV neutrinos from dissipative photospheres of gamma-ray bursts
Wang, Xiang-Yu;Dai, Zi-Gao
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/L67
Abstract: Recently, it was suggested that a photospheric component that results from the internal dissipation occurring in the optically thick inner parts of relativistic outflows may be present in the prompt $\gamma$/X-ray emission of gamma-ray bursts or X-ray flashes. We explore high-energy neutrino emission in this dissipative photosphere model, assuming that the composition of the outflow is baryon-dominated. We find that neutrino emission from proton-proton collision process forms an interesting signature in the neutrino spectra. Under favorable conditions for the shock dissipation site, these low-energy neutrinos could be detected by ${\rm km^3}$ detectors, such as Icecube. Higher energies ($\ga10$ TeV) neutrino emission from proton-proton collision and photo-pion production processes could be significantly suppressed for dissipation at relatively small radii, due to efficient Bethe-Heitler cooling of protons and/or radiative cooling of the secondary mesons in the photosphere radiation. As the dissipation shocks continue further out, high energy neutrinos from photo-pion production process becomes dominant.
An Observing System Simulation Experiment for the Impact of MTG Candidate Infrared Sounding Mission on Regional Forecasts: System Development and Preliminary Results
Hongli Wang,Xiang-Yu Huang,Yongsheng Chen
ISRN Meteorology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/971501
Abstract: An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) was designed and developed to assess the potential benefit of the Infrared Sounding on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG-IRS) geostationary meteorological satellite system to regional forecasts. In the proposed OSSE framework, two different models, namely, the MM5 and WRF models, were used in a nature run and data assimilation experiments, respectively, to reduce the identical twin problem. The 5-day nature run, which included three convective storms that occurred during the period from 11 to 16 June 2002 over US Great Plains, was generated using MM5 with a 4?km. The simulated “conventional” observations and MTG-IRS retrieved temperature and humidity profiles, produced from the nature run, were then assimilated into the WRF model. Calibration experiments showed that assimilating real or simulated “conventional” observations yielded similar error statistics in analyses and forecasts, indicating that the developed OSSE system worked well. On average, the MTG-IRS retrieved profiles had positive impact on the analyses and forecasts. The analyses reduced the errors not only in the temperature and the humidity fields but in the horizontal wind fields as well. The forecast skills of these variables were improved up to 12?hours. The 18?h precipitation forecast accuracy was also increased. 1. Introduction Remotely sensed satellite observations play an important role in modern data assimilation and forecast systems [1, 2]. Satellite observations in the visible, infrared, and microwave spectrum provide a wealth of information on the atmosphere states. The variational data assimilation technique has been pursued in research communities and operational centres, with the main focus on large scale and mesoscale forecast, to assimilate clear sky and cloudy radiance. For example, at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), an all-sky approach [3] has been developed to assimilate Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing system (AMSR-E) data. At National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Weng et al. [4] developed a hybrid variational scheme to use observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) instruments. Until recently, more attention has been directed towards cloud-resolving scale data assimilation. Cloudy infrared radiance assimilation at convection-resolving scale using a 4-dimensional variational data assimilation system was studied by Vukicevic et al. [5, 6]. Overall their results indicate that the
The early high-energy afterglow emission from Short GRBs
Hao-Ning He,Xiang-Yu Wang
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s11433-010-0021-5
Abstract: We calculate the high energy afterglow emission from short Gamma-Ray Bursts (SGRBs) in the external shock model. There are two possible components contributing to the high energy afterglow: the electron synchrotron emission and the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission. We find that for typical parameter values of SGRBs, the early high-energy afterglow emission in 10 MeV-10 GeV is dominated by the synchrotron emission. For a burst occurring at redshift z =0.1, the high-energy emission can be detectable by Fermi LAT if the blast wave has an energy E>=10^51 ergs and the fraction of energy in electrons is \epsilon_e>=0.1 . This provides a possible explanation for the high energy tail of SGRB 081024B.
On the magnetization of gamma-ray burst blast waves
Martin Lemoine,Zhuo Li,Xiang-Yu Wang
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1494
Abstract: The origin of magnetic fields that permeate the blast waves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is a long-standing problem. The present paper argues that in four GRBs revealing extended emission at >100 MeV, with follow-up in the radio, optical and X-ray domains at later times, this magnetization can be described as the partial decay of the micro-turbulence that is generated in the shock precursor. Assuming that the bulk of the extended emission >100 MeV can be interpreted as synchrotron emission of shock accelerated electrons, we model the multi-wavelength light curves of GRB 090902B, GRB 090323, GRB 090328 and GRB 110731A, using a simplified then a full synchrotron calculation with power-law-decaying microturbulence \epsilon_B \propto t^{\alpha_t} (t denotes the time since injection through the shock, in the comoving blast frame). We find that these models point to a consistent value of the decay exponent -0.5 < \alpha_t < -0.4.
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