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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 353 matches for " Xenia Brant "
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Immune surveillance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NpC)
Oluwadayo O Oluwadara,Andre Barkhordarian,Luca Giacomelli,Xenia Brant
Bioinformation , 2011,
Abstract: In the U.S., nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NpC) kills >7,600 each year. Deaths are predominantly among adult men, and in most cases, early detection and treatment can save lives. Despite the annual spending of approximately 3.2 billion dollars on head and neck cancer research, NpC remains a neglected disease since its fatality rates are among the lowest nation wide. The relative survival rates from NpC have not improved in the U.S. in the last 20 years. Infection with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is an important co-factor in the etiology of NpC. In other regions of the word (e.g., South-East Asia, Latin America), EBV infection and NpC-related prevalence and mortality are substantially higher and more alarming. Epidemiological data indicate high prevalence of EBV infection and increased risk for NpC among Central and South American and Asian immigrants in the U.S., and also predict a sharp increase in NpC incidence in the next decade. To face this emerging threat, it is important to develop and validate novel modes of detection and intervention for NpC. To this end, we characterized the proteomic signature of NpC, and of the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of the CD8+, activated (CD38+, mTOR+) and regulatory immune cell (FoxP3+) phenotype. Paraffinized biopsies were processed, and tissue microarrays constructed and tested by immunohistochemistry and tri-immunohistofluorescence for a battery of signaling markers, including AKT and PI3K, in conjunction with EBV status and ANKRD11, an NpC susceptibility biomarker. Microphotographs, analyzed and quantified by confocal microscopy and fractal analysis, suggest new avenues for immunotherapies of NpC.
The role of the microenvironment in tumor immune surveillance
Oluwadayo Oluwadara,Luca Giacomelli,Xenia Brant,Russell Christensen4
Bioinformation , 2011,
Abstract: The evidence appears compelling that the microenvironment, and associated biological cellular and molecular factors, may contribute to the progression of a variety of tumors. The effects of the microenvironment may directly influence the plasticity of T cell lineages, which was recently discussed (O’Shea & Paul, 2010 ). To review the putative role of the microenvironment in modulating the commitment of tumor immune surveillance, we use the model of oral premalignant lesions.
Agrarian Reform Cooperatives: Trials and Triumphs in the Struggle for Sustainability
Xenia Ruiz
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1997,
Abstract: The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program remains a promise unfulfilled to many who have toiled the fields for generations despite efforts of past and present administrations. For two cooperatives in Basilan, the gift of land was both a blessing and a curse. The Certificate of Land Ownership and Acquisition (CLOA) was not the end of their problems but quite the opposite. After enduring poverty and red tape the new land owners were faced with the enormous task of managing thousands of hectares of agricultural land without prior experience. Lacking financial stability and managerial expertise, the cooperatives appeared better off without the fruits of their struggle. Eventually they realized their weaknesses and found their strengths. Through favorable financing programs from government institutions and joint ventures with other organizations, the once vulnerable upstarts have grown into profitable, self-sustaining units. Now the cooperatives are development catalysts in their respective communities and a stable force in the thriving agricultural sector.
Geographia Napocensis , 2009,
Abstract: The Austrian Military Border: state control of the border in the absolutist age. In the 18th and in the early 19th century the boundary became the focus of state monitoring and control. In them concretized the intentions of the state administrative to increase control of the movements of subjects and strangers, to regulate social needs and to demonstrate sovereignty. These intentions however contradicted and clashed with the cross-border practices of different population groups. The strengthening of the administrative supervision at the boundary induced an increase of the performed resistance practices. This phenomenon of the conflict between the claim of the state to a complete control of the cross-border traffic and the opposition of the concerned population groups manifested itself in the Austrian military border in different forms.
‘Co-construction’ in the B2 and C1 KPG oral exams: a comparison of examiners as a factor involved in candidates’ performance
Xenia Delieza
Research Papers in Language Teaching and Learning , 2012,
Abstract: Researchers who investigate oral testing invariably allude to the complexity of the procedure residing in the multitude of factors which influence its final outcome. One of these factors is the examiner who has been found to affect test takers’ performance through his/her role both as interlocutor and rater. There has also been a long discussion on the characteristics of this role in the so-called oral paired-exam in comparison to the oral proficiency interview. The present paper looks into two oral tests of the same examination battery, both of which are paired in that two candidates go into an examination room where there are two examiners. However, only in one of the two tests do the candidates engage in a paired activity. This article aspires to describe the differences between the two tests in terms of the ways in which the examiner is involved in the candidates’ language performance and discuss the implications of the findings for the two types of oral examination.
Osteoimmunopathology in HIV/AIDS: A Translational Evidence-Based Perspective
André Barkhordarian,Reem Ajaj,Manisha H. Ramchandani,Gary Demerjian,Riana Cayabyab,Sohrab Danaie,Nora Ghodousi,Natasha Iyer,Nicole Mahanian,Linda Phi,Amy Giroux,Ercolano Manfrini,Negoita Neagos,Muniza Siddiqui,Olivia S. Cajulis,Xenia M. C. Brant,Paul Shapshak,Francesco Chiappelli
Pathology Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/359242
Abstract: Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) and the resulting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) alter not only cellular immune regulation but also the bone metabolism. Since cellular immunity and bone metabolism are intimately intertwined in the osteoimmune network, it is to be expected that bone metabolism is also affected in patients with HIV/AIDS. The concerted evidence points convincingly toward impaired activity of osteoblasts and increased activity of osteoclasts in patients with HIV/AIDS, leading to a significant increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis. Research attributes these outcomes in part at least to the ART, PI, and HAART therapies endured by these patients. We review and discuss these lines of evidence from the perspective of translational clinically relevant complex systematic reviews for comparative effectiveness analysis and evidence-based intervention on a global scale. 1. Osteoimmunopathology in HIV & AIDS: A Case for Fragile Bones 1.1. Osteoimmunology Osteoimmunology pertains to the physiological process that involves the intimate intertwining of bone metabolism and cellular immune surveillance. It is a novel interdisciplinary research field that has converged into studies of the interplay between the immune system and bone metabolism. Osteoimmunopathology refers to the chronic or acute inflammatory reactions subsequent to an excessive immune response that damage bones and joints, as in osteoporosis, or to the sequelae of bone pathologies upon regulation of cell mediated immunity. Cytokines and other soluble immune factors modulate and regulate the maturation of osteoblasts responsible for bone formation, and the osteoclastic bone resorption [1–4]. In addition, bone is richly innervated by both autonomic and sensory neurons, which serve sensory and regulatory functions, and directly mediate bone and immune cell activities in the neuroimmune network [5]. Moreover, present understanding of the neuroendocrine-immune regulatory pathway dictates that hormones (e.g., adrenocorticotropin hormone [ACTH]; [6]; parathyroid hormone and calcitonin; [7–9]) play an important role in maintaining bone metabolism, and thus contribute to bone mineralization and mass, by directly influencing the metabolism of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The parathyroid hormone pathway is of particular note in this context because it appears to regulate production of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-6, and of the Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κ B Ligand (RANKL) (i.e., TRANCE: Tumor Necrosis Factor- [TNF-] related
Participation with a punch: Community referenda on dam projects and the right to free, prior, and informed consent to development
Brant McGee
Water Alternatives , 2010,
Abstract: The 2000 Report of the World Commission on Dams (WCD) found that dams can threaten the resources that provide the basis for indigenous and other peoples’ culture, religion, subsistence, social and family structure – and their very existence, through forced relocation – and lead to ecosystem impacts harmful to agriculture, animals and fish. The WCD recommended the effective participation of potentially impacted local people in decisions regarding dam construction. The international right to free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC) accorded to indigenous peoples promises not only the opportunity to participate in decisions affecting their lands and livelihoods but to stop unwanted development by refusing consent as well. The newly developed concept of community referenda, held in areas potentially impacted by development projects, provides an accurate measure of the position of local voters on the proposed project through a democratic process that discourages violence, promotes fair and informed debate, and provides an avenue for communities to express their consent or refusal of a specific project. The legal basis, practical and political implications, and Latin American examples of community referenda are explored as a means of implementing the critical goal of the principle of FPIC, the expression of community will and its conclusive impact on development decision-making.
Rational generating series for affine permutation pattern avoidance
Brant Jones
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We consider the set of affine permutations that avoid a fixed permutation pattern. Crites has given a simple characterization for when this set is infinite. We find the generating series for this set using the Coxeter length statistic and prove that it can always be represented as a rational function. We also give a characterization of the patterns for which the coefficients of the generating series are periodic. The proofs exploit a new polyhedral encoding for the affine symmetric group.
Antidepressant-Resistant Depression and Antidepressant-Associated Suicidal Behaviour: The Role of Underlying Bipolarity
Zoltan Rihmer,Xenia Gonda
Depression Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/906462
Abstract: The complex relationship between the use of antidepressants and suicidal behaviour is one of the hottest topics of our contemporary psychiatry. Based on the literature, this paper summarizes the author's view on antidepressant-resistant depression and antidepressant-associated suicidal behaviour. Antidepressant-resistance, antidepressant-induced worsening of depression, antidepressant-associated (hypo)manic switches, mixed depressive episode, and antidepressant-associated suicidality among depressed patients are relatively most frequent in bipolar/bipolar spectrum depression and in children and adolescents. As early age at onset of major depressive episode and mixed depression are powerful clinical markers of bipolarity and the manic component of bipolar disorder (and possible its biological background) shows a declining tendency with age antidepressant-resistance/worsening, antidepressant-induced (hypo)manic switches and “suicide-inducing” potential of antidepressants seem to be related to the underlying bipolarity. 1. Introduction Treatment-resistant and particularly antidepressant-resistant major depression (AD-RD) is a great clinical challenge both in the cases of unipolar and bipolar depression [1, 2]. While it is well documented that the optimal clinical response to antidepressants is much rare in bipolar I and II than in unipolar major depression [3–5] only the most recent clinical studies have focused on the boundaries between treatment-resistant unipolar major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. These studies seem to be more promising in understanding both antidepressant-resistance and antidepressant-associated suicidal behaviour in patients with major mood disorders. 2. Antidepressant Resistance in Major Depressive Episode: Its Relationship with Bipolar Disorder The generally accepted definition of AD-RD refers that the depressed patient does not show a clinically significant response after at least two adequate trials of different classes of antidepressants. In spite of the fact that there are several causes of AD-RD in general [1, 6], one of the most common sources of it is the unrecognized bipolar nature of the “unipolar” major depressive disorder, when the patients receive antidepressant monotherapy—unprotected by mood stabilizers/atypical antipsychotics [4–11]. Unrecognized bipolar depressives are generally treated as “unipolar” major depressives which means that these patients do not receive mood stabilizers [3, 12]. This can result in a very high rate of treatment resistance, which is about two-times higher than in patients with
Hemotransfusión como factor de riesgo en cirugía cardíaca
Serrano Valdés, Xenia;
Archivos de cardiología de México , 2006,
Abstract: bleeding occur frequently in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. although unexpected bleeding after this surgery is common, reducing this bleeding is a desirable clinical goal, because such bleeding is associated with adverse outcomes. bleeding during and after cardiac operations and the hemodilution effects of cardiopulmonary bypass commonly result in blood transfusions. despite institutional efforts to curtail the frequency of blood transfusions in cardiac operation, the frequency remains high. if transfusions were completely safe, differing thresholds would not matter. however, the adverse reactions associated with transfusions are: febrile reactions, hemolytic and infectious complications may occur. most recently, blood transfusions have been linked to postoperative wound infections, pneumonia, renal dysfunction, severe sepsis, hospital mortality and increased 5-year mortality.
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