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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5498 matches for " Xavier Palomer "
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The Interplay between NF-kappaB and E2F1 Coordinately Regulates Inflammation and Metabolism in Human Cardiac Cells
Xavier Palomer,David álvarez-Guardia,Mercy M. Davidson,Tung O. Chan,Arthur M. Feldman,Manuel Vázquez-Carrera
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019724
Abstract: Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) inhibition by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is related to a shift towards increased glycolysis during cardiac pathological processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The transcription factors estrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) regulate PDK4 expression through the potent transcriptional coactivator PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). NF-κB activation in AC16 cardiac cells inhibit ERRα and PPARβ/δ transcriptional activity, resulting in reduced PGC-1α and PDK4 expression, and an enhanced glucose oxidation rate. However, addition of the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide to these cells prevents the downregulation of PDK4 expression but not ERRα and PPARβ/δ DNA binding activity, thus suggesting that additional transcription factors are regulating PDK4. Interestingly, a recent study has demonstrated that the transcription factor E2F1, which is crucial for cell cycle control, may regulate PDK4 expression. Given that NF-κB may antagonize the transcriptional activity of E2F1 in cardiac myocytes, we sought to study whether inflammatory processes driven by NF-κB can downregulate PDK4 expression in human cardiac AC16 cells through E2F1 inhibition. Protein coimmunoprecipitation indicated that PDK4 downregulation entailed enhanced physical interaction between the p65 subunit of NF-κB and E2F1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that p65 translocation into the nucleus prevented the recruitment of E2F1 to the PDK4 promoter and its subsequent E2F1-dependent gene transcription. Interestingly, the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide prevented the inhibition of E2F1, while E2F1 overexpression reduced interleukin expression in stimulated cardiac cells. Based on these findings, we propose that NF-κB acts as a molecular switch that regulates E2F1-dependent PDK4 gene transcription.
CONSENTIMIENTO INFORMADO EN ODONTOLOGíA: UN ANáLISIS TEóRICO-PRáCTICO
Palomer R,Leonor;
Acta bioethica , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S1726-569X2009000100013
Abstract: in order to know more about the petition of informed consent in odontology, we realized a search of information in the database of scielo and pub med, using the key words "informed consent", "odontology" and "autonomy". as a complement, in order to have information about the situation in chile, a survey was sent to 40 dental surgeons in 3 dental centers belonging to the health network of the pontificia universidad católica de chile. it can be observed that there still exists disinformation in odontology in chile relating to the purpose, implications and importance of an adequate process of informed consent in the dentist-patient relationship.
Caries dental en el ni?o: Una enfermedad contagiosa
Palomer R,Leonor;
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0370-41062006000100009
Abstract: background: dental caries is a highly prevalent disease worldwide. it is defined as a transmissible disease, where infection by streptococcus mutans (sm) plays a fundamental role. many studies indicate that early colonization of the mouth of the child occurs through the saliva of adults, specially mothers. objective: to introduce pediatricians with the current concepts regarding pathology of dental caries in children. methods: literature was reviewed on the topic, using as data base articles of medline and selecting articles based on key words: transmission, dental caries, children, streptococcus mutans. articles that used statistically significant samples and scientific method for the identification of the bacteria were chosen. results: review of the literature confirms the role of sm in the etiology of dental caries in children and its transmission through saliva. conclusions: dental caries is a transmissible disease and the main pathogen is sm. it is important for pediatricians to know the mechanism of infection and to inform mothers, in order to prevent dental caries and deliver patients to the dentist whenever necessary
CONSENTIMIENTO INFORMADO EN ODONTOLOGíA: UN ANáLISIS TEóRICO-PRáCTICO O CONSENTIMIENTO INFORMADO EM ODONTOLOGIA: UMA ANáLISE TEóRICO-PRáTICO INFORMED CONSENT IN ODONTOLOGY: A THEORETICAL-PRACTICAL ANALYSIS
Leonor Palomer R
Acta Bioethica , 2009,
Abstract: Para conocer acerca de la petición de consentimiento informado en odontología, se realizó una búsqueda de información en las bases de dato de SciELO y PubMed, usando las palabras claves "consentimiento informado", "odontología" y "autonomía". Como complemento, para tener información sobre la situación en Chile, se envió una encuesta a 40 cirujanos dentistas de tres centros de atención dental de la Red de Salud de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Se puede observar que aún existe desinformación en odontología en cuanto a la finalidad, implicancia e importancia de un adecuado proceso de consentimiento informado en la relación odontólogo-paciente. Para conhecer a respeito do pedido de consentimento informado em odontologia, realizou-se uma busca de informa o na base de dados SciELO e Pub Med, usando as palabras chaves "consentimento informado", "odontologia" e "autonomia". Como complemento, para se ter uma informa o sobre a situac o no Chile, foi enviado um questionário para 40 cirurgi es dentistas de tr s centros de cuidados dentais da Rede de Saúde da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Chile. Pode-se observar que ainda existe desinforma o em odontologia relacionadas com a finalidade, implicancia e importancia de um adecuado processo de consentimento informado na rela o odontólogo-paciente. In order to know more about the petition of informed consent in odontology, we realized a search of information in the database of SciELO and Pub Med, using the key words "informed consent", "odontology" and "autonomy". As a complement, in order to have information about the situation in Chile, a survey was sent to 40 dental surgeons in 3 dental centers belonging to the health network of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. It can be observed that there still exists disinformation in odontology in Chile relating to the purpose, implications and importance of an adequate process of informed consent in the dentist-patient relationship.
Aspectos éticos relacionados con las remuneraciones en odontología Aspectos éticos relacionados com as remunera es em odontologia Ethical aspects related to dentistry remunerations
Leonor Palomer Roggerone
Acta Bioethica , 2012,
Abstract: Existen diferentes modalidades para recibir las remuneraciones en carreras liberales como odontología. En general, el pago se hace por acciones realizadas o por el tiempo dedicado a ejecutarlas. En algunos casos el monto del pago está directamente relacionado con el diagnóstico realizado al paciente. Existe un conflicto de interés en alguna de las modalidades? Para responder esta pregunta se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica sobre el tema, encontrándose escasa literatura al respecto. A partir de lo revisado podemos concluir que la existencia del conflicto de interés no es el problema, la resolución del mismo es el que aporta la dimensión ética al tema de las remuneraciones. Existem diferentes modalidades para receber as remunera es em carreiras liberais como odontologia. Em geral, o pagamento se faz por a es realizadas ou pelo tempo dedicado a executá-las. Em alguns casos o montante do pagamento está diretamente relacionado com o diagnóstico realizado ao paciente. Existe um conflito de interesse em alguma das modalidades? Para responder esta pergunta se realizou uma busca bibliográfica sobre o tema, encontrando-se escassa literatura a respeito. A partir do que foi revisado podemos concluir que a existência do conflito de interesse n o é o problema, a resolu o do mesmo é o que aporta a dimens o ética ao tema das remunera es. There are different modalities to receive remunerations in liberal careers such as dentistry. In general, payment is done for actions carried out by time dedicated to execute them. In some cases, the amount of payment is directly related to the diagnosis of the patient. There is a conflict of interest in some of these modalities? To answer this question a bibliographical search was carried out on the topic, finding scarce literature on it. From the revised material, we can conclude that the problem is not the existence of a conflict of interest, but what brings an ethical dimension to the topic of remunerations is its resolution.
Caries dental en el ni o: Una enfermedad contagiosa Dental caries in children: a contagious disease
Leonor Palomer R
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2006,
Abstract: Introducción: La carie dental es una enfermedad de alta prevalencia en todo el mundo y actualmente se define como una patología transmisible, en cuyo contagio juega un rol fundamental el Streptococcus Mutans (SM). Muchos estudios indican que la colonización temprana de la boca del ni o por dicha bacteria es a través de la saliva de los adultos, especialmente de las madres. Objetivos: Familiarizar al médico pediatra, quien tiene la posibilidad de revisar a los ni os desde su nacimiento, en los conceptos actuales en cuanto a la etiopatogenia de la caries dental en el ni o. Método: Se revisó la literatura al respecto, usando como base de datos los artículos del Medline, seleccionando los artículos en base a las palabras clave: transmisión, caries dental, pediatría, Streptococcus Mutans. Se utilizó para esta revisión, aquellos artículos que utilizaron muestras estadísticamente significativas y método científico para la identificación de las bacterias. Resultados: La revisión bibliográfica confirma el rol fundamental del SM en la generación de la caries dental en el ni o y su transmisión a través de la saliva. Conclusiones: La carie dental es una enfermedad transmisible y el principal responsable es el SM. Es importante que el médico pediatra conozca los mecanismos de contagio y se preocupe de informar a las madres, favorezca hábitos saludables de cuidado oral y derive a sus pacientes al odontólogo en forma oportuna, para así ayudar a prevenir la transmisión de la enfermedad Background: Dental caries is a highly prevalent disease worldwide. It is defined as a transmissible disease, where infection by Streptococcus Mutans (SM) plays a fundamental role. Many studies indicate that early colonization of the mouth of the child occurs through the saliva of adults, specially mothers. Objective: To introduce pediatricians with the current concepts regarding pathology of dental caries in children. Methods: Literature was reviewed on the topic, using as data base articles of Medline and selecting articles based on key words: transmission, dental caries, children, Streptococcus Mutans. Articles that used statistically significant samples and scientific method for the identification of the bacteria were chosen. Results: Review of the literature confirms the role of SM in the etiology of dental caries in children and its transmission through saliva. Conclusions: Dental caries is a transmissible disease and the main pathogen is SM. It is important for pediatricians to know the mechanism of infection and to inform mothers, in order to prevent dental caries and deliver pati
The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ on the Inflammatory Basis of Metabolic Disease
Teresa Coll,Emma Barroso,David álvarez-Guardia,Lucía Serrano,Laia Salvadó,Manuel Merlos,Xavier Palomer,Manuel Vázquez-Carrera
PPAR Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/368467
Abstract: The pathophysiology underlying several metabolic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis, involves a state of chronic low-level inflammation. Evidence is now emerging that the nuclear receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) ameliorates these pathologies partly through its anti-inflammatory effects. PPAR activation prevents the production of inflammatory cytokines by adipocytes, and it is involved in the acquisition of the anti-inflammatory phenotype of macrophages infiltrated in adipose tissue. Furthermore, PPAR ligands prevent fatty acid-induced inflammation in skeletal muscle cells, avoid the development of cardiac hypertrophy, and suppress macrophage-derived inflammation in atherosclerosis. These data are promising and suggest that PPAR ligands may become a therapeutic option for preventing the inflammatory basis of metabolic diseases. 1. Introduction Over the last decade, an abundance of evidence has shown a close link between a state of chronic low-level inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. In fact, excessive nutrition consumption or storage has the capacity to activate both inflammatory and metabolic signaling networks since they are linked and interdependent [1]. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs), which are members of the nuclear receptor family, have emerged as important regulators of metabolic and inflammatory signaling, particularly in the context of metabolic disease [2–4]. The ability of these receptors to connect metabolism and inflammation makes them interesting targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, through modulation of the inflammatory process. Here, we will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the role of one of these PPAR members, the PPAR / , as an integrator of metabolic and inflammatory signaling networks. 2. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) PPARs are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and oxidation, lipid metabolism, and inflammation [2]. To be transcriptionally active, PPARs need to heterodimerize with the 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) (NR2B) (Figure 1). PPAR-RXR heterodimers bind to DNA-specific sequences called peroxisome proliferator-response elements (PPREs), which consist of an imperfect direct repeat of the consensus binding site for nuclear hormone receptors (AGGTCA), separated by one nucleotide (Direct Repeat 1, DR-1). These sequences have been
PGC-1α Induces Mitochondrial and Myokine Transcriptional Programs and Lipid Droplet and Glycogen Accumulation in Cultured Human Skeletal Muscle Cells
Emma Mormeneo, Cecilia Jimenez-Mallebrera, Xavier Palomer, Valeria De Nigris, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera, Anna Orozco, Andrés Nascimento, Jaume Colomer, Carles Lerín, Anna M. Gómez-Foix
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029985
Abstract: The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a chief activator of mitochondrial and metabolic programs and protects against atrophy in skeletal muscle (skm). Here we tested whether PGC-1α overexpression could restructure the transcriptome and metabolism of primary cultured human skm cells, which display a phenotype that resembles the atrophic phenotype. An oligonucleotide microarray analysis was used to reveal the effects of PGC-1α on the whole transcriptome. Fifty-three different genes showed altered expression in response to PGC-1α: 42 upregulated and 11 downregulated. The main gene ontologies (GO) associated with the upregulated genes were mitochondrial components and processes and this was linked with an increase in COX activity, an indicator of mitochondrial content. Furthermore, PGC-1α enhanced mitochondrial oxidation of palmitate and lactate to CO2, but not glucose oxidation. The other most significantly associated GOs for the upregulated genes were chemotaxis and cytokine activity, and several cytokines, including IL-8/CXCL8, CXCL6, CCL5 and CCL8, were within the most highly induced genes. Indeed, PGC-1α highly increased IL-8 cell protein content. The most upregulated gene was PVALB, which is related to calcium signaling. Potential metabolic regulators of fatty acid and glucose storage were among mainly regulated genes. The mRNA and protein level of FITM1/FIT1, which enhances the formation of lipid droplets, was raised by PGC-1α, while in oleate-incubated cells PGC-1α increased the number of smaller lipid droplets and modestly triglyceride levels, compared to controls. CALM1, the calcium-modulated δ subunit of phosphorylase kinase, was downregulated by PGC-1α, while glycogen phosphorylase was inactivated and glycogen storage was increased by PGC-1α. In conclusion, of the metabolic transcriptome deficiencies of cultured skm cells, PGC-1α rescued the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins and FITM1. Several myokine genes, including IL-8 and CCL5, which are known to be constitutively expressed in human skm cells, were induced by PGC-1α.
?Es Importante la Salud Oral en los Ni?os con Diabetes?
PALOMER R,LEONOR; GARCíA B,HERNáN;
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0370-41062010000100009
Abstract: introduction: diabetes mellitus (dm) affects a high proportion of the population, seen more frequently among children and adolescents. various organs are affected, including oral tissues. objectives: review the relationship between dm and oral health among pediatric patients, highlighting measures that assist in prevention and early detection of these complications. methods: areview of the literature was performed, focusing on the pediatric population. results: most studies agree in finding that patients with dm1 show accelerated dental exchange, gingival and periodontal disease, and abnormalities in the composition of saliva. most studies find risk of decay, especially if there is poor metabolic control. conclusions: due to the increased risk, dental control should be incorporated in the multidisciplinary routine control of children with cm1. oral health education in this risk group could decrease risk in these pathologies.
Manifestaciones orales de la epidermolisis bulosa en el ni?o
Vargas D,Alex; Palomer R,Leonor; Palisson E,Francis;
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0370-41062005000600009
Abstract: epidermolysis bullosa constitutes a rare and heterogeneous group of diseases presenting with bullous changes in skin and mucous membranes of congenital origin. maxillofacial involvement considers feeding, hygiene and dental treatment difficulties. the pediatrician, as the head of a multidisciplinary team that treats these affected children, must be aware of the importance of forwarding the patient to a dentist in order to start preventive measures and opportune treatment. this paper pretends to deeply review the general knowledge of oral manifestations of the eb, showing that early dental consultation is a priority
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