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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 68650 matches for " XU Jian "
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Value Added Decomposition of Chinese Provincial Exports and Its Assessment of True Comparative Advantage: A Case Study of Manufacturing in Jiangsu Province  [PDF]
Hui Chen, Jian Xu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.73032
Abstract: The Sino-US trade conflict, the collapse of economic globalization and the reconstruction of global value chains have enhanced the necessity and urgency of building an open and connected, self-controllable, domestic value chain. Jiangsu is a major province and a large open province. The goal, path and measures for Jiangsu to build an independent and controllable advanced manufacturing system will have typical reference value. Based on the KWW trade value added decomposition framework, the World Input-Output Table (WIOT) and the inter-regional input-output tables of 30 provinces in China, Jiangsu’s return domestic value added, foreign value added, province value added and other provinces’ value added in Jiangsu’s manufacturing exports are estimated. Meanwhile, the regional linkages and changes of Jiangsu’s manufacturing exports with the rest of the provinces are also analyzed. The results show that the value added of imports from Jiangsu exports is higher than that of other provinces, which indicates that the “foreign circulation” of Jiangsu’s economy is stronger than “domestic circulation” though the situation is always changing in recent years. The Yangtze River Delta region is the core space for Jiangsu to build manufacturing industry chain. The Yangtze River Economic Belt and the Huaihai Economic Zone, which is the part of new Silk Road, are two important extended spaces for Jiangsu to build up NVC. Finally, On the basis of the decomposition of export value added, the industries with real comparative advantages in 16 major manufacturing industries in Jiangsu Province are evaluated. Both the advantages and disadvantages of Jiangsu’s value chain upgrading at the industrial level are unveiled.
China’s Commitments in Education Services and Their Impact
Jian Xu
International Education Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v2n1p154
Abstract: International trade in educational services has grown substantially over the past decades. Now it is a billion dollar industry including recruitment of international students, establishment of university campuses abroad, franchised provision and on line education. WTO requires each member nation to make its own schedule of commitments in education services, and to explain its limitations on market access and national treatment as well as other limitations. In the schedules of commitments, commitments are split into two sections: First, “horizontal” commitments which stipulate limitations that apply to all of the sectors included in the schedule; these often refer to a particular mode of supply, notably commercial presence and the presence of natural persons. Any evaluation of sector-specific commitments must therefore take the horizontal entries into account. Second, specific commitments which apply to trade in services in a particular sector or subsector are listed. This paper examines China’s commitments in education services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It provides rough pictures about the impact of China’s commitments on its education services.
WTO Members’ Commitments in Education Services
Jian Xu
International Education Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v2n2p37
Abstract: The establishment of World Trade Organization is in line with the conclusion reached at the end of the Uruguay Round in April 1994 by the bulk of the world’s trading nations. WTO is in charge of managing multilateral trading system. WTO’s “General Agreement on Trade in Services” (GATS) requires member nations to comply with the following basic rules: all member nations equally enjoy Most-Favored-Nation (MFN) treatment; enterprises of other member nations can enjoy equal treatment and market access in one member nation’s territory with its domestic enterprises. GATS includes the general agreement, annex and the schedules of commitments. Schedules of commitments is a sort of document which shows the obligations stimulated in the GATS about market access and national treatment that one WTO member nation will fulfill, or that the obligations that one WTO member nation hopes to be exempted from. When a WTO member nation makes a commitment, it has set legally the standards of market access and national treatment in its schedule of commitments, and will no longer introduce any other measures which will limit the market access and national treatment in trade in education services.
China’s Education Market and Foreign Suppliers of Education Services
Jian Xu
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v4n4p49
Abstract: International trade in education services belongs to the category of international trade in services, which takes education services as its object. It has grown substantially over the past decades. Now it is a billion dollar industry including recruitment of international students, establishment of university campuses abroad, franchised provision and on line education. The education market in China is very large and still lack of development. It means opportunities to foreign suppliers of education services. WTO requires each member nation to make its own schedule of commitments in education services, and to explain its limitations on market access and national treatment as well as other limitations. Therefore, to understand China’s education market, you must understand China’s commitments in education services upon entry into WTO. This paper explains China’s commitments in education services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and provides rough pictures about the meaning of China’s commitments to foreign suppliers of education services that are eager to either enter into China’s education market or absorb more Chinese students.
The United States’ Policy toward Germany 1933--1938
Jian Xu
Journal of Politics and Law , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v1n4p77
Abstract: Britain was the main conflict in the west. And the United States’ policy toward Germany was subject to this conflict. In order to create in Europe a balance of power which was in the United States’ favor, and to prevent Britain and France from controlling Europe completely, the United States adopted a neutral policy toward Germany, and did help the recovery of Germany. And Germany wanted to absorb a lot of fund to recover her economy and rebuild her army, with the hope of regaining the position as one of the western powers. So it was necessary for both two countries to maintain good relationship between them. But with the rise of Nazi Germany, Hitler did adopt a very aggressive diplomatic policy, which seriously harmed the United States’ interests. So the United States’ policy toward Germany began to change. This thesis tries to analyze the United States’ policy toward Germany before the breakout of Second World War.
Interpreting Metaphor of Modality in Advertising English
Jian Xu
English Language Teaching , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v2n4p117
Abstract: Based on a review of the historical and current studies on modality, this paper aims at interpreting metaphor of modality and its functions in advertising English according to theories of modality system and metaphor of modality in systemic-functional linguistics with a corpus we have collected. It is pointed out that metaphor of modality, a usual method to scheme modality and allocate modal responsibility, plays pragmatic roles of foregrounding subjectivity and objectivity as well as expressing politeness and text cohesion, hence helping advertisers to establish interpersonal relationship with the readers and to achieve their commercial goals by manipulating them.
Interferometric detection of Chern numbers in topological optical lattices
Jian Xu
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/112/46001
Abstract: Topological states of matter emergent as a new type of quantum phases, which can be distinguished by their associated topological invariants, e.g., Chern numbers. Currently, there is increasing in-terests toward the physically detection of the new predicted topological phases. Here, we propose an interferometric approach to directly measure the Chern number in a topological optical lattice via detecting the associated Zak phase. We show that this interferometric approach can distinguish Zak phases of plus or minus 2{\pi} from 0 in the first Brillouin zone, and thus provides a new tool to directly detect the Chern number of topological systems. In addition, we demonstrate that this method is feasible under realistic experimental conditions and widely applicable for many systems. Finally, this scheme can be readily generalized to detect high Chern number systems.
An Energy Balanced Reliable Routing Metric in WSNs  [PDF]
Jian ZHU, Hai ZHAO, Jiuqiang XU
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2009.11004
Abstract: In WSNs’ applications, not only the reliable end-to-end communications are must be ensured, but also the reduction of energy consumption and the entire network’s lifetim e should be optimized. All of the above have become to be an important way to evaluate the performance of routing protocols. In this paper, an op-timization model for WSNs’ lifetime is firstly advanced. Secondly, the shortage of ETX based routing metric is solved with the help of the optimization model. Thirdly, an energy balanced routing metric is advanced which is called EBRM in this paper. The result of simulation in NS-2 shows that, the EBRM metric can not only prolong the network’s lifetime, but also can ensure the reliable end-to-end communication.
Effects of Time Delay and Noise on Asymptotic Stability in Human Quiet Standing Model
Caihong Wang,Jian Xu
Mathematical Problems in Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/829484
Abstract: A human quiet standing stability is discussed in this paper. The model under consideration is proposed to be a delayed differential equation (DDE) with multiplicative white noise perturbation. The method of the center manifold is generalized to reduce a delayed differential equation to a two-dimensional ordinary differential equation, to study delay-induced instability or Hopf bifurcation. Then, the stochastic average method is employed to obtain the It? equation. Thus, the top Lyapunov exponent is calculated and the necessary and sufficient condition of the asymptotic stability in views of probability one is obtained. The results show that the exponent is related to not only the strength of noise but also the delay, namely, the reaction speed of brain. The effect of the strength of noise on the human quiet standing losing stability is weak for a small delay. With the delay increasing, such effect becomes stronger and stronger. A small change in the strength of noise may destabilize the quiet standing for a large delay. It implies that a person with slow reaction is easy to lose the stability of his/her quiet standing. 1. Introduction The human quiet standing model is complex neuromuscular control biological system with time delay. The time delay reflects finite transmission related to the transport or processing of matter, energy, and signals through the systems [1, 2]. Noise is an immanent property in biological systems, and such stochasticity may arise from muscle contractions as well as imperfections, and nervous system operates under the very noisy environment in the balance control system. Previous experimental studies have shown that the movement of the pressure center during quiet standing is stochastic and obeys a correlated random walk [3, 4]. For healthy people, balancing body stability is an easy task. However, older people or some patients often find walking difficult and need to put more effort in quiet standing. To help these groups, the principles making quiet standing must be discovered firstly. As the gravitational force destabilizes the inverted-pendulum-like skeletal system, the study of human balance stability is extremely essential. However, serious difficulties will be encountered because of the combination of delay and stochastic processes when the qualitative stochastic differential delay system is investigated in human quiet standing. In recent years, many researchers have studied the postural control system in quiet standing [5–21]. Experimentally, human quiet standing has most often been investigated in terms of the center of
Triple Positive Solutions for Third-Order -Point Boundary Value Problems on Time Scales
Jian Liu,Fuyi Xu
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/123283
Abstract: We study the following third-order -point boundary value problems on time scales ((Δ?))?
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