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One-pot synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol, propylene oxide (PO) and carbon dioxide has been investigated using the basic zeolites as catalysts. Among the zeolites studied, Beta showed the best catalytic performance for DMC production. That the desilication of zeolite structure resulted in a hierarchical porosity of Beta, leading to more amount of KOH can be loaded on the surface of zeolite and therefore enhancing the base strength of the catalyst was proposed to be the reason for improved catalytic performance.
Soil organic carbon and nitrogen are used as indexes of soil quality assessment and sustainable land use management. At the same time, soil C/N ratio is a sensitive indicator of soil quality and for assessing the carbon and nitrogen nutrition balance of soils. We studied the characteristics of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen by investigating a large number of apple orchards in major apple production areas in China. High apple orchard soil organic carbon content was observed in the provinces of Heilongjiang, Xinjiang, and Yunnan, whereas low content was found in the provinces of Shandong, Henan, Hebei, and Shaanxi, with the values ranging between 6.44 and 7.76 g·kg-1. Similar to soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen content also exhibited obvious differences in the 12 major apple producing provinces. Shandong apple orchard soil had the highest total nitrogen content (1.26 g·kg-1), followed by Beijing (1.23 g·kg-1). No significant difference was noted between these two regions, but their total nitrogen content was significantly higher than the other nine provinces, excluding Yunnan. The soil total nitrogen content for Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Henan, and Gansu was between 0.87 and 1.03 g·kg-1, which was significantly lower than that in Shandong and Beijing, but significantly higher than that in Liaoning, Shanxi, and Shaanxi. Six provinces exhibited apple orchard soil C/N ratio higher than 10, including Heilongjiang (15.42), Xinjiang (13.38), Ningxia (14.45), Liaoning (12.24), Yunnan (11.03), and Gansu (10.63). The soil C/N ratio was below
Tilletia controversa Kühn (TCK) has strong infectivity and viability and may cause great cut hazard to wheat and other crops. Composting treatment of TCK-infected wheat waste may be an effective method to eliminate the further contamination. This study applied microbial fermentation composting technique using mixed crop straws and manure to establish a bio-friendly composting method. The change of physicochemical properties of the compost was monitored regularly to detect the time course of TCK degradation and confirm the inactivation of TCK germination activity. The results of regular sampling indicate that the germination rate of TCK declines with the composting progress, and composting ten days under the condition of 50℃ to 60℃ completely inactivates the germination ability of TCK. Thus the present study provides a bio-friendly composting method for degrading TCK-infected wheat crops under TCK outbreak.