Abstract:
The chemical structures of 114 polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) have been studied by molecular electronegativity-distance vector (MEDV). The linear relationships between gas chromatographic retention index and the MEDV have been established by a multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The results of variable selection by stepwise multiple regression (SMR) and the powerful predictive abilities of the optimization model appraised by leave-one-out cross-validation showed that the optimization model with the correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9947 and the cross-validated correlation coefficient (RCV) of 0.9940 possessed the best statistical quality. Furthermore, when the 114 PASHs compounds were divided into calibration and test sets in the ratio of 2:1, the statistical analysis showed our models possesses almost equal statistical quality, the very similar regression coefficients and the good robustness. The quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) model established may provide a convenient and powerful method for predicting the gas chromatographic retention of PASHs.

Abstract:
Liposome capillary electrophoresis (LCE) was used as a model for the in vitro evaluation of the degree of membrane penetration of organic compounds. The hydrophobic parameters of 9 compounds were determined by LCE. In comparison of the correlation coefficient of log Plw ( the logarithm of the partition coefficient of liposome/water system, calculated from retention factor) vs. log Pm (the logarithm of osmotic coefficient) with that of log Pow (the logarithm of the partition coefficient of octanol/water system) vs. log Pm, the former was 0.94, much greater than the latter 0.78. It means that as the biomembrane model, liposome is more similar than the octanol/water system. The LCE method has the potential to be an in vitro screening model.

Abstract:
A novel method for the determination of dichlorvos in environmental water samples has been developed using microwave-assisted-headspace-liquid-phase microextraction (MAE-HS-LPME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The influences of extraction parameters in the sample matrix were investigated. Under optimized experimental conditions, the detection limit (S/N=3), the quantification limit (S/N=10) and the enrichment factor of the proposed method for the target analyte were 0.96 μg/L, 3.20 μg/L and 54, respectively. The recoveries of target analyte spiked in real water samples were 87.4%~103%. The extraction performance of MAE-HS-LPME to the target analyte was also compared with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The results indicated that the developed method is simple, rapid, efficient, solvent-saving, highly selective and widely applicable.

Abstract:
Following the principle and method on the measurement of oil-water partition coefficients by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC), a traditional Chinese medicine fingerprint (TCM-FP) was established. The components which were extracted from the TCM were separated from each other by MEEKC under optimized operation conditions. The conditions of running solution were of 70 mmol/L SDS, 87 mmol/L n-heptane, 814 mmol/L n-butanol and 5 mmol/L sodium tetraborate with pH value of 8.80. The uncoated fused silica capillary used was 54 cm x 75 microm with an effective length of 45 cm. The UV detection was carried out at 210 nm and an electrophoretic voltage of 15 kV was applied. SPSS program was used for the nonlinear regression of migration time and log P(ow) values of the standard compounds from literature, and the reliability of the established method has been investigated. As a result, the standard equation of regression with good linearity (r = 0.988 0) was obtained. The log P(ow) values of compounds measured under the same operation conditions were well consistent with those from literature. This method was applied to L. lucidum in which oleanolic acid is a main effective component. Besides the establishment of its TCM-FP, the log P(ow) of oleanolic acid, 3.63, was also obtained. The functional fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine can give the log P(ow) of the extracts from TCM, reflect oil-water partition character of the constituents, and is of great significance to the selection of solvents, the design of dosage form, and the improvement of production technology.

Abstract:
On the basis of non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis(NACE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography(MEKC),a novel technique,non-aqueous micellar electrokinetic chromatography(NAMEKC),has been established.NAMEKC has the advantages of NACE and(uses) the separation mechanism of MEKC,showing special advantages for separation of hydrophobic compounds.Separation of three of the priority pollutants by U.S.Environmental Protection Agency(EPA),i.e.dimethyl phthalate(DMP),diethyl phthalate(DEP),and dibutyl phthalate(DBP),were realized in 15 min.Important factors on separation,such as the(amount) of water added in the electrophoretic running buffer,the acidity of water phase,the(organic) additive,and the concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS),were investigated.The proportion of water in the electrophoretic running buffer could affect the current and the stability of SDS micelle.Organic additives and the acidity of water phase showed no effect on increasing resolution.The concentration of SDS was a dominant factor,affecting the partition of analytes in micelle.DMP, DEP,and DBP were separated in a short time under the optimized operation conditions using 20 mmol/L NaH_2PO_4 and 120 mmol/L SDS in formamide/water(9/1,v/v).The application of NAMEKC leads to successful separation of the three typical hydrophobic compounds,which provides a novel means to separate and analyze hydrophobic compounds.

Abstract:
The problem of renormalisability of the SU(n) theory with massive gauge bosons is reinverstigated in the present work. We expound that the quantization under the Lorentz condition caused by the mass term of the gauge fields leads to a ghost action which is the same as that of the usual SU(n) Yang-Mills theory in the Landau gauge. Furthermore, we clarify that the mass term of the gauge fields cause no additional complexity to the Slavnov-Taylor identity of the generating functional for the regular vertex functions and does not change the equations satisfied by the divergent part of this generating functional. Finally, we prove that the renormalisability of the theory can be deduced from the renormalisability of the Yang-Mills theory.

Abstract:
Based on the renormalisability of the SU(n) theory with massive gauge bosons, we start with the path integral of the generating functional for the renormalized Green functions and develop a method to construct the scattering matrix so that the unitarity is evident. By using as basical variables the renormalized field functions and defining the unperturbed Hamiltonian operator $H_0$ that, under the Lorentz condition, describes the free particles of the initial and final states in scattering processes, we form an operator description with which the renormalized Green functions can be expressed as the vacuum expectations of the time ordered products of the Heisenberg operators of the renormalized field functions, that satisfy the usual equal time commutation or anticommutation rules. From such an operator description we find a total Hamiltonian $\widetilde{H}$ that determine the time evolution of the Heisenberg operators of the renormalized field functions. The scattering matrix is nothing but the matrix of the operator $U(\infty, -\infty)$, which describes the time evolution from $-\infty$ to $\infty$ in the interaction picture specified by $\widetilde{H}$ and $H_0$, respect to a base formed by the physical eigen states of $H_0$. We also explain the asymptotic field viewpoint of constructing the scattering matrix within our operator description. Moreover, we find a formular to express the scattering matrix elements in terms of the truncated renormalized Green functions.