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Discrimina??o entre lotes de sementes de gr?o-de-bico mediante teste de envelhecimento artificial
Maeda, Jocely Andreuccetti;Wutke, Elaine Bahia;
Bragantia , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051996000100015
Abstract: eleven chickpea seed lots were subjected to the artificial aging test at 42°c and 100% relative humidity for periods of 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. the objective was to determine the exposure time that best discriminate the lots for the germination response after aging. the 96 hours period was too long, and the 48 hours period was inefficient; 24 and 72 hours were both similar in the lots classifying as to the seeds vigor levels. however, the 72 hours period was the best to discriminate lots whose germination values were over than 82%.
Restaura??o do solo para a cultura de cana-de-a?úcar: III - Período 1958-61 e considera??es gerais
Wutke, Ant?nio Carlos Pimentel;Alvarez, Raphael;
Bragantia , 1968, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051968000100018
Abstract: this paper reports the data obtained in the third period of an experiment which was started in 1954, to study the recovering for sugar cane culture of an original low fertility and impoverished soil (humic red-yellow latosol) . at the same time with the results of the two harvestings of this third planting one discusses the soil productivity and fertility variations which had occurred up to the first planting. in a randomized blocks design eight treatments with four replications were compared. they are as follows: a) control; b) p + lime + leguminous cover crop; c) pk + cover crop; d) pk + lime + cover crop; e) npk; f) npk ++ lime; g) npk + cover crop; h) npk + lime + cover crop. in this period the cover crop still used was the sun hemp (crotalaria junceal.) and the sugar cane variety planted was cb 41/76. in the planting time the fertilization applied was at the rates of 90-80-120 kg per hectare of n, p2o5 and k2o respectively and as ammonium sulfate, plain superphosphate and potassium chloride. after the first harvesting other applications of nitrogen and potassium were made, at the rates of 60 kg and 90 kg per hectare respectively, using the same sources of fertilizers in top-dressing application. the yields of sugar cane obtained in this period showed appreciable effects due to lime and potassium and a considerable increase in soil productivity as compared with the data corresponding to the other ones. this result is attributed to the soil fertility increase, on account of favorable variations in soil acidity and ca, mg and po4 levels, as shown by chemical analyses. in spite of the leguminous cover crop usage and chemical fertilizations, no increase in carbon, nitrogen and potassium soil levels were detected.
Fixa??o do nitrogênio do ar pelas bactérias que vivem associadas às raízes do feij?o de porco e do feij?o baiano
Gargantini, Hermano;Wutke, Ant?nio Carlos Pimentel;
Bragantia , 1960, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051960000100040
Abstract: the determination of the nitrogen fixed from the air by bacteria in association with sword bean (canavalia ensiformis d. c.) and cowpea (feij?o baiano) (vigna sinensis (l.) savi) was the main purpose of this work. the two leguminous plants were sown in mitscherlich pots filled with 6 kg of "terra-roxa-misturada" soil, collected at the depth of 20 cm in the central experiment station, instituto agron?mico, campinas county. the following treatments with three replications were compared: 1) check; 2) npk; 3) npk + limestone; 4) npk + inoculant; 5) npk + limestone + inoculant; 6) pk + limestone; 7) pk + limestone + inoculant. the amount of limestone was calculated to raise the ph to 6.5 and the base saturation of the sail to 70%. the fertilizer applications for n, p2o5,. and k2o were 2.0 g, 2.2 g and 3.0 g respectively, as solutions of nh4no3, k2hp04 and kcl. harvesting was done at the beginning of blooming-time by cutting the plants even with the ground. later, both the aerial parts, as well as the roots, were weighed fresh and after drying at 60° c. nitrogen determination by the kjeldahl method of these two fractions, aerial parts and roots, were mode after drying. the soil from those pots without nitrogen fertilizer were submitted to the same analysis for comparison with the initial level of this element in the soil. the data obtained indicate that the two leguminous plants showed a good nitrogen fixation capacity and that the feij?o baiano was more effective. the amounts of nitrogen fixed in pots that received the best treatments corresponded to 48.5 kg per hectare for the sword bean and 73.0 kg for the "feij?o baiano". from this point of view both leguminous plants were satisfactory to be employed as green manure.
Aduba??o da cana-de-a?úcar. XIII - Estudo conjunto de experiências com diversos fosfatos realizadas entre 1950 e 1963
Freire, E. S.;Alvarez, R.;Wutke, A. C. P.;
Bragantia , 1968, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051968000200016
Abstract: based on experiments conducted from 1950 up to 1963 on different soil types of the state of s?o paulo, the authors studied the efficiency of several phosphorus carriers, for the fertilization of sugar cane, when applied in the presence of nk at the rate of 100 kilograms of total p2o5 per hectare. the areas used were all deficient in phosphorus with ph varying between 4.5 and 6.3. giving the value 100 to the responses to ordinary superphosphate, the average relative efficiencies of the phosphates that were used in 6 to 14 experiments were the following: thermophosphate, 107; dicalcium phosphate, 105; bone meal, 91; olinda-phosphate, 63; alvorada-phospha-te, 61; araxá-phosphate, 57; phosphorous bauxite, 40. the four latter carriers are natural phosphates from different regions of brazil. the authors also studied the influence of the soil types, as well as that of the ph and the level of available phosphorus in the soil.
Avalia??o das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo
Wutke, Ant?nio Carlos Pimentel;Gargantini, Hermano;Gomes, A. Gentil;
Bragantia , 1962, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051962000100045
Abstract: this paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel production by the martin-siemens basic procedure. these materials were compared at two different rates. general application of npk fertilizers was made and the control treatment received no lime. the soybean variety abura (glycine max (l.) merril) was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the ph and exchangeable acidity (h+ + al+3). the results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. the slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. the grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. the actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. a finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.
Aduba??o da soja: II - Aduba??o mineral em "terra-roxa-misturada com argilito do glacial"
Miyasaka, Shiro;Wutke, Ant?nio Carlos Pimentel;Venturini, Wanderley Rinaldo;
Bragantia , 1962, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051962000100034
Abstract: the southern region of s?o paulo state, with an area of 500.000 hectares, and comprising the municipalities of itapetininga, itararé, itaberá, itapeva and s?o miguel arcanjo, is of low fertility but has aroused the interest of farmers because of the excellent topography and the proper climate for the cultivation of wheat (triticum aestivum, l.) and soybeans (glycine max (l) merril). in order to study the reaction of the soybean to the application of chemical fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulphur and minor elements, an experiment was made in engenheiro bacelar distrit, municipality of itapeva, on red soil ("terra-roxa") mixed with glacial clay. the experiment wos designed to permit the study of the residual effects of the fertilizers too. the results obtained in this experiment indicated a strong favorable response to phosphorus and calcium and a limited reaction to potassium. they also showed a negative response to nitrogen ond o non-significant effect from use of sulphur and minor elements. a theoretical study was made concerning the economics of fertilizing with phosphorus, being verified that under the conditions of the present experiment the application of ordinary superphosphate directly to soybean brought returns. the considerable residual effect observed in the second year of the experiment indicated that this profit can be sufficient to increase the yield of subsequent plantings. on the other hand, the residual effect demonstrated in this experiment supports the view that the application of mineral fertilizers, especially of phosphorus, should be made to the annual crops that precede the soybean in a rotation program.
Transmiss?o do Cowpea mild mottle virus pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B para plantas de feij?o e soja
Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu;Yuki, Valdir Atsushi;Wutke, Elaine Bahia;
Summa Phytopathologica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-54052010000200009
Abstract: the stem necrosis of soybean is caused by a virus of the carlavirus and transmitted for the whitefly bemisia tabaci, also infectad of beans and identified as cowpea mild mottle virus (cpmmv). in this work biotype b for transmission of the virus in beans and soy had been carried through tests for determination of the number of necessary whiteflys b. tabaci. in the sequence two other tests had been carried through, with 10 insects for plant. periods of access to the acquisition (paa) of 'jalo' for 'jalo', and the effect of periods of access to the inoculation (pai) had been evaluated increase. visually typical symptoms of carlavirus had been evidenced as mosaic, veinclearing, sistemic necrosis and reduction of growth. it had transmission of the virus for 'bt-2' of beans and 'brs-132' of soy with only one insect for plant, being more efficient in this last species. the tax of transmission of the virus was bigger with the increase of the number of insects for plant. the paa was after determined 15 min of time for acquisition, and the increase with 5 min and increasing the period of access the acquisition and inoculation increased it transmission tax.
Infestation of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) during Five Consecutive Cycles of Sugarcane Crop Succeeding Leguminous Crops  [PDF]
Edmilson José Ambrosano, André Luiz Louren??o, Elaine Bahia Wutke, Fabricio Rossi, Fábio Luis Ferreira Dias, Silvio Tavares, Gláucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.61002
Abstract: The area cultivated with sugarcane in Brazil is expanding, and increasingly using legumes cover crop in new deployed areas and in those which were reformed. Long-term trials were carried out in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the effect of leguminous green manure on the natural infestation of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) during five cropping cycles of sugarcane “IAC 87-3396”. This study was carried out from October 1999 to October 2005 in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, at coordinates 22°42''S and 47°38''W, 560 m above sea level, in soil classified as Typic Paleudult. Green manure crops were assigned to five treatments: peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) (cultivar “IAC-Tatu” and “IAC-Caiapó”), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) (cultivar “IAC 1”) and velvet-bean [Mucuna aterrima (Piper & Tracy) Holland] (cultivar “common”). A treatment without any green manure or weed was used as the control. The previous sugarcane crop was destroyed and the soil was prepared in a conventional way (using plow and harrow) before the leguminous crops were sowed. Thirty days after the sowing, weeds were removed and, 120 days later, the crops were cut and its biomass was deposited on the soil surface without incorporation. Experimental plots comprised five rows of sugarcane, each one measuring 10 m long and spaced 1.40 m apart. The sugarcane was harvested 18 months after biomass deposit, on October 25th, 2001 and its stalks were collected at intervals of approximately 12 months in: 07/09/2002, 08/01/2003, 11/07/2004 and 10/06/2005. At harvest, the masses were determined from a sample of sugarcane, cut from three rows (2 m long) in the center of the plot. The losses caused by the sugarcane borer were estimated by the intensity of the infestation by randomly observing and collecting sugarcane stems from each plot. A great reduction in the number of stalks and in the yield was noted proportionally to the intensity of the infestation of the borer in the sugarcane crop grown after the velvet-bean. The sugarcane-velvet-bean rotation should be regarded considering the intensity of sugarcane borer infestation. No influence of the other green manure crops was observed on the intensity of the infestations. However, the harvest seasons of the sugarcane seemed to influence the borer infestation.
Aduba??o da cana-de-a?úcar. X - Experiências com diversos fosfatos (1959-60)
Alvarez, R.;Arruda, H. Vaz de;Wutke, A. C. Pimentel;Freire, E. S.;
Bragantia , 1965, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051965000100001
Abstract: three experiments were conducted in 1959-60 in the state of s?o paulo to study the efficiency of different sources of phosphorus for the production of sugar cane, using 50, 100 and 150 kilograms of total p2o5, per hectare in the presence of nk. phosphorus significantly increased the yields in all of the experiments, in one of them, on ?terra-roxa-misturada? type of soil, the natural phosphates (local rock phosphates) were statistically equivalent to the soluble phosphates (standard superphosphate, treble superphosphate and thermophosphate); however, in the other two experiments, on ?terra-roxa-legítima? and ?massapé-salmour?o? soils, the soluble phosphates showed to be significantly better. the differences between the two natural phosphates were always small; among the soluble ones they were appreciable, but not significant.
Aduba??o da cana-de-a?úcar. XII - Experiências com misturas de fosfatos (1961-62)
Alvarez, R.;Oliveira, Hélcio de;Wutke, A. C. P.;Freire, E. S.;Abramides, E.;
Bragantia , 1965, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051965000100016
Abstract: in the three experiments reported ordinary superphosphate was compared, in the presence of nk, with olinda and araxá phosphates (ground natural phosphates), and mixtures containing 1/3 or 1/2 of the phosphorus dosis as superphosphate, the remaining being supplied by one of the natural phosphates. these fertilizers were compared at the doses of 50, 100 and 150 kilograms of total p2o5 per hectare, on three different soil types of the state of s?o paulo with ph around 5.20. satisfactory yields and significant responses to phosphorus were obtained in the three experiments. in the average of these and of the three rates of application, the yield increases were the following: with superphosphate, 25%; with the natural phosphates, 17%; with the mixtures containing two thirds or half the phosphorus doses as natural phosphates, 22 and 29%, respectively. practically, there was no difference between olinda and araxá phosphate.
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