Abstract:
We report on an extensive global QCD analysis of new DIS and hadronic inclusive jet production data emphasizing the impact of these recent data on the determination of the gluon distribution, and on the interpretation of the high $E_t$ jets highlighted by the CDF collaboration. This analysis results in (i) a better handle on the range of uncertainty of the gluon distribution, (ii) a new generation of CTEQ parton distributions which incorporates this uncertainty, (iii) a viable scenario for accommodating the high $E_t$ jets in the conventional pQCD framework, and (iv) a systematic study of the sensitivity of the various hard processes to $\alpha_s$ and the consistency of $\alpha_s$ determination in global analysis.

Abstract:
Conventional perturbative QCD calculations on the production of a heavy quark ``$H$'' consist of two contrasting approaches: the usual QCD parton formalism uses the zero-mass approximation ($m_H=0$) once above threshold, and treats $H$ just like the other light partons; on the other hand, most recent ``NLO'' heavy quark calculations treat $m_H$ as a % large parameter and always consider $H$ as a heavy particle, never as a parton, irrespective of the energy scale of the physical process. By their very nature, both these approaches are limited in their regions of applicability. This dichotomy can be resolved in a unified general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme, which retains the $m_H$ dependence at all energies, and which naturally reduces to the two conventional approaches in their respective region of validity. Recent applications to lepto- and hadro-production of heavy quarks are briefly summarized.

Abstract:
We have performed a QCD next-to-leading order (NLO) calculation for Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) retaining the full parton and hadron mass dependencies. We find that the gluon initiated contributions to DIS processes, such as charm production, are {\it comparable} in magnitude ({\it i.e.}, $30\%$ to $100\%$) to the ``leading-order'' (LO) sea-quark processes. The ``slow-rescaling" prescription and the full NLO formalism are compared in a quantitative manner. The use of DIS distributions and the inclusion of the charm mass via slow-rescaling are not sufficient to mimic the correct NLO physics. These results imply that previous analyses of charm production data to extract the strange and charm content of the nucleon, as well as the precise determination of Standard Model parameters based on these analyses (such as the Weinberg angle), need to be reassessed.

Abstract:
Existing calculations of heavy quark hadroproduction in perturbative QCD are either based on the approximate conventional zero-mass perturbative QCD theory or on next-to-leading order (NLO) fixed-flavor-number (FFN) scheme which is inadequate at high energies. We formulate this problem in the general mass variable-flavor-number scheme which incorporates initial/final state heavy quark parton distribution/fragmentation functions as well as exact mass dependence in the hard cross-section. This formalism has the built-in feature of reducing to the FFN scheme near threshold, and to the conventional zero-mass parton picture in the very high energy limit. Making use of existing calculations in NLO FFN scheme, we obtain more complete results on bottom production in the general scheme to order \alpha_s^3 both for current accelerator energies and for LHC. The scale dependence of the cross-section is reduced, and the magnitude is increased with respect to the NLO FFN results. It is shown that the bulk of the large NLO FFN contribution to the single heavy-quark inclusive cross-section is already contained in the (resummed) order \alpha_s^2 ``heavy flavor excitation'' term in the general scheme.

Abstract:
Charm final states in deep inelastic scattering constitute $\sim 25%$ of the inclusive cross-section at small $x$ as measured at HERA. These data can reveal important information on the charm and gluon structure of the nucleon if they are interpreted in a consistent perturbative QCD framework which is valid over the entire energy range from threshold to the high energy limit. We describe in detail how this can be carried out order-by-order in PQCD in the generalized \msbar formalism of Collins (generally known as the ACOT approach), and demonstrate the inherent smooth transition from the 3-flavor to the 4-flavor scheme in a complete order $\alpha_s$ calculation, using a Monte Carlo implementation of this formalism. This calculation is accurate to the same order as the conventional NLO $F_2$ calculation in the limit $\frac{Q}{m_c} >> 1$. It includes the resummed large logarithm contributions of the 3-flavor scheme (generally known in this context as the fixed-flavor-number or FFN scheme) to all orders of $\alpha_s\ln(m_c^2/Q^2)$. For the inclusive structure function, comparison with recent HERA data and the existing FFN calculation reveals that the relatively simple order-$\alpha_s$ (NLO) 4-flavor ($m_c \neq 0$) calculation can, in practice, be extended to rather low energy scales, yielding good agreement with data over the full measured $Q^2$ range. The Monte Carlo implementation also allows the calculation of differential distributions with relevant kinematic cuts. Comparisons with available HERA data show qualitative agreement; however, they also indicate the need to extend the calculation to the next order to obtain better description of the differential distributions.

Abstract:
Heavy flavor production is an important QCD process both in its own right and as a key component of precision global QCD analysis. Apparent disagreements between fixed-flavor scheme calculations of b-production rate with experimental measurements in hadro-, lepto-, and photo-production provide new impetus to a thorough examination of the theory and phenomenology of this process. We review existing methods of calculation, and place them in the context of the general PQCD framework of Collins. A distinction is drawn between scheme dependence and implementation issues related to quark mass effects near threshold. We point out a so far overlooked kinematic constraint on the threshold behavior, which greatly simplifies the variable flavor number scheme. It obviates the need for the elaborate existing prescriptions, and leads to robust predictions. It can facilitate the study of current issues on heavy flavor production as well as precision global QCD analysis.

Abstract:
The systematic treatment of heavy quark mass effects in DIS in current CTEQ global analysis is summarized. Applications of this treatment to the comparison between theory and experimental data on DIS charm production are described. The possibility of intrinsic charm in the nucleon is studied. The issue of determining the charm mass in global analysis is discussed.

Abstract:
An overview is given of recent progress on a variety of fronts in the global QCD analysis of the parton structure of the nucleon and its implication for collider phenomenology, carried out by various subgroups of the CTEQ collaboration.

Abstract:
Existing calculations of heavy quark production in charged-current and neutral current lepton-hadron scattering are formulated differently because of the artificial distinction of ``light'' and ``heavy'' quarks made in the traditional approach. A proper QCD formalism valid for a wide kinematic range from near threshold to energies much higher then the quark mass should treat these processes in a uniform way. We formulate a unified approach to both types of leptoproduction processes based on the conventional factorization theorem. In this paper, we present the general framework with complete kinematics appropriate for arbitrary masses, emphasizing the simplifications provided by the helicity formalism. We illustrate this approach with an explicit calculation of the leading order contribution to the quark structure functions with general masses. This provides the basis for a complete QCD analysis of charged current and neutral current leptoproduction of charm and bottom quarks to be presented in subsequent papers.

Abstract:
A unified QCD formulation of leptoproduction of massive quarks in charged current and neutral current processes is described. This involves adopting consistent factorization and renormalization schemes which encompass both vector-boson-gluon-fusion (flavor creation) and vector-boson-massive-quark-scattering (flavor excitation) production mechanisms. It provides a framework which is valid from the threshold for producing the massive quark (where gluon-fusion is dominant) to the very high energy regime when the typical energy scale \mu is much larger than the quark mass m_Q (where the quark-scattering should be prevalent). This approach effectively resums all large logarithms of the type (alpha_s(mu) log(mu^2/m_Q^2)^n which limit the validity of existing fixed-order calculations to the region mu ~ O(m_Q). We show that the (massive) quark-scattering contribution (after subtraction of overlaps) is important in most parts of the (x, Q) plane except near the threshold region. We demonstrate that the factorization scale dependence of the structure functions calculated in this approach is substantially less than those obtained in the fixed-order calculations, as one would expect from a more consistent formulation.