Abstract:
It is widely held that irrational numbers can be represented by infinite digit-sequences. We will show that this is not possible. A digit sequence is only an abbreviated notation for an infinite sequence of rational partial sums. As limits of sequences, irrational numbers are incommensurable with any grid of decimal fractions.

Abstract:
Based upon the axiom of choice it is proved that the cardinality of the rational numbers is not less than the cardinality of the irrational numbers. This contradicts a main result of transfinite set theory and shows that the axiom of choice is invalid.

Abstract:
Cantor's famous proof of the non-denumerability of real numbers does apply to any infinite set. The set of exclusively all natural numbers does not exist. This shows that the concept of countability is not well defined. There remains no evidence for the existence of transfinite cardinal numbers.

Abstract:
It is shown that the pillars of transfinite set theory, namely the uncountability proofs, do not hold. (1) Cantor's first proof of the uncountability of the set of all real numbers does not apply to the set of irrational numbers alone, and, therefore, as it stands, supplies no distinction between the uncountable set of irrational numbers and the countable set of rational numbers. (2) As Cantor's second uncount-ability proof, his famous second diagonalization method, is an impossibility proof, a simple counter-example suffices to prove its failure. (3) The contradiction of any bijection between a set and its power set is a consequence of the impredicative definition involved. (4) In an appendix it is shown, by a less important proof of Cantor, how transfinite set theory can veil simple structures.

Abstract:
All sciences need and many arts apply mathematics whereas mathematics seems to be independent of all of them, but only based upon logic. This conservative concept, however, needs to be revised because, contrary to Platonic idealism (frequently called "realism" by mathematicians), mathematical ideas, notions, and, in particular, numbers are not at all independent of physical laws and prerequisites.

Abstract:
The famous contradiction of a bijection between a set and its power set is a consequence of the impredicative definition involved. This is shown by the fact that a simple mapping between equivalent sets does also fail to satisfy the critical requirement.

Abstract:
The notions of potential infinity (understood as expressing a direction) and actual infinity (expressing a quantity) are investigated. It is shown that the notion of actual infinity is inconsistent, because the set of all (finite) natural numbers which it is ascribed to, cannot contain an actually infinite number of elements. Further the basic inequality of transfinite set theory aleph0 < 2^aleph0 is found invalid, and, consequently, the set of real numbers is proven denumerable by enumerating it.

Abstract:
Transfinite set theory including the axiom of choice supplies the following basic theorems: (1) Mappings between infinite sets can always be completed, such that at least one of the sets is exhausted. (2) The real numbers can be well ordered. (3) In a finite set of real numbers the maximum below a given limit can always be determined. (4) Any two different real numbers are separated by at least one rational number. These theorems are applied to map the irrational numbers into the rational numbers, showing that the set of all irrational numbers is countable.

Abstract:
Vibration mode based model reduction methods like Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) will be compared to methods coming from control engineering, namely moment matching (MM) and balanced truncation (BT). Conclusions based on the theory together with a numerical demonstration will be presented. The key issues on which the paper is focused are the reduction of metallic structures, the sensitivity of the reduced model to varying boundary conditions, full system response, accurate statics and the possibility to determine “a priori” the number of needed modes (trial vectors). These are important topics for the use of reduction methods in general and in particular for the implementation of FE models in multi body system dynamics where model reduction is widely used. The intention of this paper is to give insight into the methods nature and to clarify the strengths and limitations of the three methods. It turns out, that in the considered framework CMS delivers the best results together with a clear strategy for an “a priori” selection of the modes (trial vectors).