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Celiac disease
Wolfgang Holtmeier, Wolfgang F Caspary
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-3
Abstract: Celiac disease (CD) in children and celiac sprue in adults are probably the same disorder with the same pathogenesis. The synonyms are: Coeliac disease (British spelling) – Celiac sprue – Nontropical sprue-Gluten-sensitive enteropathy – Idiopathic steatorrheaCeliac disease is a chronic intestinal disease mostly associated with malabsorption caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy (villous flattening), resulting in maldigestion and malabsorption. Clinical and histological improvement can be obtained after withdrawal of dietary gluten.Celiac disease is characterized by malabsorption and villous atrophy. However, diseases other than CD can cause marked villous flattening and increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) [1]. Differential diagnosis is of special importance for subjects in whom CD is suspected and who have negative serology. The following diseases, which can have similar features, must be ruled out [1-4]:? Tropical sprue? Collagenous colitis? Whipple's disease? Giardiasis? Viral enteritis? AIDS? Crohn's disease of the small intestine? Small intestinal lymphoma? Carbohydrate intolerance, cow's milk intolerance? Autoimmune enteropathy? Graft-vs-host disease? Radiation damagePrevalence of clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1/270 in Finland to 1/5,000 in North America. However, since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. In epidemiological studies aimed to assess CD prevalence, large cohorts in North America and Europe were screened for highly-sensitive endomysium or tissue transglutaminase antibodies. Besides, they underwent subsequent small intestinal biopsies when antibody testing was positive. The CD prevalence was found to be much higher than expected. Approximately 1/100 to 1/500 were found positive for antibodies and had villous atrophy of the small intestine [5-10]. Thus, up to 1% of a western population tests positive for celi
Subalpine Forest and Treeline Ecotone under the Influence of Disturbances: A Review  [PDF]
Friedrich-Karl Holtmeier, Gabriele Broll
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.97051
Abstract: This article considers disturbances caused by abiotic and biotic factors and human impact in the ecological region extending from subalpine forest to the upper tree limit. Both abiotic and biotic factors may cause reversible or irreversible disturbances. Disturbances by mass movement and avalanches give the subalpine forest and the treeline ecotone a distinct spatial pattern characterized by forest on safe topography and sites that preclude forest. Removal of the upper subalpine forests by humans has enlarged the snow-catchment area of avalanches and elongated the avalanche pathways. Consequently, avalanche destructive potential has increased. Hazards will probably increase due to climate change. External factors, like cyclonic storms, may cause fundamental disturbances. Fires have played a major role in the removal of high-elevation forests. Forest destruction by fire is often followed by soil erosion. Wild fires are likely to increase as a result of warming climate and would possibly prevent climatically-driven treeline advance. Cyclic or episodic mass outbreaks of defoliating insects and bark beetles, and pathogens also cause severe disturbances. Oversized populations of wild ungulates impede tree regeneration and can cause local soil erosion. Inadequate game management is the primary cause of intolerable ungulate numbers. Due to man-caused habitat fragmentation, the animals’ impact on the remained habitats has increased. Subalpine forest may recover from disturbance or become replaced by a substitute formation (e.g. krummholz). A subsequent absence of natural disturbances may also be considered a disturbance initiating a new development. Both natural and anthropogenic disturbances may counteract positive influences of climatic warming on subalpine forests and treeline. Effective measures to reduce or prevent abiotic and biotic disturbances of high-elevation forest may contribute to greater safety for people living in the endangered areas of the mountain valleys and also improve other ecosystem services of the subalpine forest.
Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors
F.-K. Holtmeier,G. Broll
Landscape Online , 2007,
Abstract: The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming species respond in different ways to a changing climate. Forest advance upwards and northwards primarily depends on successful regeneration and survival of young growth rather than on increasing growth rates of mature trees. Every assessment of treeline response to future climate change must consider the effects of local site conditions and feedbacks of in-creasing tree population in modulating the climatically-driven change. Treeline-shift will influence regional and local climates, pedogenesis, plant communities, animal populations and biodiversity as well as having a considerable effect on economic changes in primary production. A better understanding of the functional relationships between the many treeline-relevant factors and treeline dynamics can be achieved only by extensive research at different scales within different climatic regions supported by as many as possible experimental studies in the field together with laboratory and remote sensing techniques.
Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders
Carlo Catassi,Julio C. Bai,Bruno Bonaz,Gerd Bouma,Antonio Calabrò,Antonio Carroccio,Gemma Castillejo,Carolina Ciacci,Fernanda Cristofori,Jernej Dolinsek,Ruggiero Francavilla,Luca Elli,Peter Green,Wolfgang Holtmeier,Peter Koehler,Sibylle Koletzko,Christof Meinhold,David Sanders,Michael Schumann,Detlef Schuppan,Reiner Ullrich,Andreas Vécsei,Umberto Volta,Victor Zevallos,Anna Sapone,Alessio Fasano
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5103839
Abstract: Non Celiac Gluten sensitivity (NCGS) was originally described in the 1980s and recently a “re-discovered” disorder characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected with either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). Although NCGS frequency is still unclear, epidemiological data have been generated that can help establishing the magnitude of the problem. Clinical studies further defined the identity of NCGS and its implications in human disease. An overlap between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and NCGS has been detected, requiring even more stringent diagnostic criteria. Several studies suggested a relationship between NCGS and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly autism and schizophrenia. The first case reports of NCGS in children have been described. Lack of biomarkers is still a major limitation of clinical studies, making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten related disorders. Recent studies raised the possibility that, beside gluten, wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors and low-fermentable, poorly-absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates can contribute to symptoms (at least those related to IBS) experienced by NCGS patients. In this paper we report the major advances and current trends on NCGS.
On the Modal and Non-Modal Model Reduction of Metallic Structures with Variable Boundary Conditions  [PDF]
Wolfgang Witteveen
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2012.26037
Abstract: Vibration mode based model reduction methods like Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) will be compared to methods coming from control engineering, namely moment matching (MM) and balanced truncation (BT). Conclusions based on the theory together with a numerical demonstration will be presented. The key issues on which the paper is focused are the reduction of metallic structures, the sensitivity of the reduced model to varying boundary conditions, full system response, accurate statics and the possibility to determine “a priori” the number of needed modes (trial vectors). These are important topics for the use of reduction methods in general and in particular for the implementation of FE models in multi body system dynamics where model reduction is widely used. The intention of this paper is to give insight into the methods nature and to clarify the strengths and limitations of the three methods. It turns out, that in the considered framework CMS delivers the best results together with a clear strategy for an “a priori” selection of the modes (trial vectors).
Sequences and Limits  [PDF]
Wolfgang Mueckenheim
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.52007
Abstract: It is widely held that irrational numbers can be represented by infinite digit-sequences. We will show that this is not possible. A digit sequence is only an abbreviated notation for an infinite sequence of rational partial sums. As limits of sequences, irrational numbers are incommensurable with any grid of decimal fractions.
Human Dimensions Approach towards Integrating Sustainable Transportation and Urban Planning Policies: A Decision Support System (DSS) Based on Stated Preferences Data  [PDF]
Wolfgang Rid
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.74059
Abstract: While a lot of progress has been made in Germany to reduce CO2 emissions in the past years in almost all sectors of economy, however, the sector of transportation shows increasing CO2 emissions in the same period of time. Likewise, sustainability objectives of German land use policies have not been met so far, especially with regard of the continuously high rate of greenfield land used up for new housing development. In this paper, it is argued that environmental issues of both sectors have to be addressed by integrating urban housing development and transportation infrastructure planning policies. The paper reports on a stated preferences survey among house buyers in Germany, using a discrete choice approach, where parameters of sustainable urban design and sustainable transport are both integrated into one model. Building on concepts of behavioral economics, preferences are elicited for sub-samples of different “environmental awareness”. Results show differences in tastes for higher building densities to reduce land consumption as well as differences in tastes for transport infrastructure development and frequency of public transport parameters. In addition, a decision support system is developed to analyze the impact of individual parameters on choosing one alternative over the other. Form this, conclusions on potential market shares for sustainable housing and transport development are drawn and recommendations are given to implement integrated urban design and transportation infrastructure policies.
Flaporhexis: Alternative Way to Make a Femtosecond Laser Corneal Flap  [PDF]
Wolfgang A. Pfaeffl
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.43042

Flaporhexis, a technique to make the femtosecond laser corneal flap was developed primarily to reduce the mechanical trauma associated with separating the corneal tissue by taking advantage of the cornea’s natural anatomy and was first described in a peer reviewed artice in 2008. The anterior part of the cornea tends to be stronger, thereby allowing tearing (Greek “rhexis”) along the preformed cuts of the femtosecond photo disruption. Flaporhexis differs from Binder’s technique of “hinge opening as published in 2006 by opening the flap from the opposite side. If a femtosecond flap lift is performed correctly, the surgeon will find a virgin, uniform, dry stromal bed, which had not been manipulated by any surgical instrument and is therefore perfect for wavefront guided laser surgery as “Sub-Bowmans Keratomileusis”.

The COP9 Signalosome Controls Adipocyte Differentiation by Regulating CHOP Protein Stability  [PDF]
Xiaohua Huang, Wolfgang Dubiel
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.410B050

Obesity is a serious health problem of our time. Dysfunction of adipogenesis, the differentiation of adipocytes, is a hallmark of obesity. Therefore here we investigate the role of the COP9 signalosome and of CHOP in the differentiation of LiSa-2 preadipocytes.

The Development of a Data-Centred Conceptual Reference Model for Strategic GRC-Management  [PDF]
Volker Nissen, Wolfgang Marekfia
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2014.72007

Until now there are only few ideas for an integrated governance, risk and compliance (GRC) management available with these referring to the management process of GRC only. In literature, mainly specific questions at a detailed level, like the automation of different controls, are discussed in the GRC context. To be in the position to entirely realise benefit potentials (e.g. improvement of processes), it is necessary to have an integrated GRC-Management focusing on the strategic business objectives. Starting from the requirements, this article deals with general guidelines for strategic GRC-Management showing which aspects have to be considered in terms of an integral approach. On this basis, a data-centred reference model explicates the structural connections of GRC-related data, and lays the basis for the implementation in practice.

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