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The predicaments of child victims of crime seeking justice in Ethiopia: a double victimization by the justice process
Woldemariam, Getachew Assefa
Afrika Focus , 2011,
Abstract: This article presents an account of a legal system that has fundamentally failed Ethiopia′s young and vulnerable citizens. The Ethiopian justice process has permitted the subjection of child victims to cycles of traumatisation during investigation, prosecution and trial phases of cases in which they are involved. Ethiopia does not have laws that require the special treatment of children who are victims or witnesses of crime. It has neither rules of criminal procedure nor evidence that direct the conduct of criminal proceedings involving child victims. This article will show that although the Ethiopian Constitution incorporates principles such as the consideration of ‘the best interests of the child’, the realization of this principle for the Ethiopian child victim of crime remains illusory due to the absence of detailed rules that guide and compel the justice process to that effect. Based on empirical data, the article argues further that although ad hoc initiatives to introduce victims to a child-friendly justice process exist in a limited number of urban areas, these initiatives do not reach the vast majority of child victims around the country who continue to be further victimized by the justice process.
An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia
Tesfaye Bekalo, Sebsebe Woodmatas, Zemede Woldemariam
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-5-26
Abstract: The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the main data collection method in which the gathering, preparation, use, previous and current status and cultivation practices were systematically investigated. The abundance, taxonomic diversity and distribution of medicinal plants were studied using ecological approach.A total of 120 species, grouped within 100 genera and 47 families that are used in traditional medical practices were identified and studied. The Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 16 (13.3%) and 14 (12%) species, respectively. 25.4% of the total medicinal plants are collected from homegardens and the rest (74.6%) are collected from wild habitats. Of the total number of medicinal plants, 108 species (90%) were used to treat human ailments, 6 (5%) for livestock diseases and the remaining 6 (5%) were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. The major threats to medicinal plants reported include harvesting medicinal plants for firewood (24.8%) followed by fire (22.3%) and construction (19%). Of the four plant communities identified in the wild, more medicinal plant species (34) were found in community type-4 (Hyparrhenia cymbaria-Erythrina abyssinica community), which accounted for 61.8%.Konta Special Woreda is an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural changes are in the process of threatening the resources and this signals the need for serious efforts to create public awareness so that measures are taken to conserve the medicinal plants in the natural ecosystems and other suitable environments.Medicinal plants have important contributions in the healthcare system of local communities as the main source of medicine for the majority of the rural population. Plants have not only nutriti
Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses from sheep and goats in an abattoir in Debre Zeit area, Ethiopia
T Woldemariam, D Asrat, G Zewde
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. namely, Campylobacter jejuni and coli cause acute diarrheal diseases in humans worldwide; although these species are known to occur in the intestinal tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Objective: Little is known about the presence of these bacteria in various food animals as possible sources of infection to humans in Ethiopia. Therefore this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in sheep and goat carcasses at a private export abattoir in Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on apparently healthy sheep and goat slaughtered at a private export abattoir in Debre-Zeit, from October 2007 to March 2008. Sheep carcasses (mutton) (n=218) and goat carcasses (n=180) were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. Swabs were taken from four different sites on the carcasses (crutch, abdomen, thorax and breast) at different stages of slaughtering processes (before evisceration, after evisceration and after washing). Results: Campylobacter spp were isolated from 40 (10.1%) out of 398 carcasses examined. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of isolation of Campylobacter species in different swabbing sites. Of the 40 thermophilic campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni and C. coli accounted for 29 (72.5%) and 11 (27.5%), respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study revealed the presence of campylobacter in sheep and goat carcasses, indicating possible risks of infection to people through the consumption of raw/under-cooked meat. Coordinated actions are needed to reduce or eliminate the risks posed by this organism at various stages of slaughtering process.
Concentration levels of essential and non-essential elements in selected Ethiopian wines
Daniel Minilu Woldemariam, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2011,
Abstract: The concentrations of thirteen metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Co, Ni, Cd, Cu and Cr) were determined in four brands of Ethiopian wines by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) after digesting the wine samples with HNO3- H2O2 mixture. Among the major metals potassium (694–767 mg/L) was found to be at the highest level, followed by magnesium (58.1–79.2 mg/L), calcium (28.4–37.1mg/L) and sodium (24.0–24.4 mg/L). From the minor metals iron, zinc and manganese were in the ranges of 1.42–3.16, 1.82–2.70, and 1.04–1.88 mg/L, respectively, followed by copper (0.5–1.5 mg/L), nickel (0.18–0.20 mg/L), cobalt (less than 0.065–0.091 mg/L) and chromium (less than 0.075–0.192 mg/L). The toxic metal lead was in the range of 0.14–0.31 mg/L while cadmium was below detection limit of the analytical procedure used in this study (less than 0.01 mg/L). The levels of metals in the Ethiopian wines were found to be comparable with wines of some other countries. KEY WORDS: Essential element, Non-essential element, Acid digestion, Flame atomic absorption Spectrometry (FAAS), Ethiopia, Wine Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2011, 25(2), 169-180.
Concentration levels of essential and non-essential elements in selected Ethiopian wines
Daniel Minilu Woldemariam,Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2011,
Abstract: The concentrations of thirteen metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Co, Ni, Cd, Cu and Cr) were determined in four brands of Ethiopian wines by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) after digesting the wine samples with HNO3- H2O2 mixture. Among the major metals potassium (694–767 mg/L) was found to be at the highest level, followed by magnesium (58.1–79.2 mg/L), calcium (28.4–37.1mg/L) and sodium (24.0–24.4 mg/L). From the minor metals iron, zinc and manganese were in the ranges of 1.42–3.16, 1.82–2.70, and 1.04–1.88 mg/L, respectively, followed by copper (0.5–1.5 mg/L), nickel (0.18–0.20 mg/L), cobalt (<0.065–0.091 mg/L) and chromium (<0.075–0.192 mg/L). The toxic metal lead was in the range of 0.14–0.31 mg/L while cadmium was below detection limit of the analytical procedure used in this study (<0.01 mg/L). The levels of metals in the Ethiopian wines were found to be comparable with wines of some other countries.
The Impact of Climate Change on Indigenous Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica): Predicting Future Trends and Identifying Priorities
Aaron P. Davis, Tadesse Woldemariam Gole, Susana Baena, Justin Moat
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047981
Abstract: Precise modelling of the influence of climate change on Arabica coffee is limited; there are no data available for indigenous populations of this species. In this study we model the present and future predicted distribution of indigenous Arabica, and identify priorities in order to facilitate appropriate decision making for conservation, monitoring and future research. Using distribution data we perform bioclimatic modelling and examine future distribution with the HadCM3 climate model for three emission scenarios (A1B, A2A, B2A) over three time intervals (2020, 2050, 2080). The models show a profoundly negative influence on indigenous Arabica. In a locality analysis the most favourable outcome is a c. 65% reduction in the number of pre-existing bioclimatically suitable localities, and at worst an almost 100% reduction, by 2080. In an area analysis the most favourable outcome is a 38% reduction in suitable bioclimatic space, and the least favourable a c. 90% reduction, by 2080. Based on known occurrences and ecological tolerances of Arabica, bioclimatic unsuitability would place populations in peril, leading to severe stress and a high risk of extinction. This study establishes a fundamental baseline for assessing the consequences of climate change on wild populations of Arabica coffee. Specifically, it: (1) identifies and categorizes localities and areas that are predicted to be under threat from climate change now and in the short- to medium-term (2020–2050), representing assessment priorities for ex situ conservation; (2) identifies ‘core localities’ that could have the potential to withstand climate change until at least 2080, and therefore serve as long-term in situ storehouses for coffee genetic resources; (3) provides the location and characterization of target locations (populations) for on-the-ground monitoring of climate change influence. Arabica coffee is confimed as a climate sensitivite species, supporting data and inference that existing plantations will be neagtively impacted by climate change.
Interplant Communication of Tomato Plants through Underground Common Mycorrhizal Networks
Yuan Yuan Song,Ren Sen Zeng,Jian Feng Xu,Jun Li,Xiang Shen,Woldemariam Gebrehiwot Yihdego
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013324
Abstract: Plants can defend themselves to pathogen and herbivore attack by responding to chemical signals that are emitted by attacked plants. It is well established that such signals can be transferred through the air. In theory, plants can also communicate with each other through underground common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) that interconnect roots of multiple plants. However, until now research focused on plant-to-plant carbon nutrient movement and there is no evidence that defense signals can be exchanged through such mycorrhizal hyphal networks. Here, we show that CMNs mediate plant-plant communication between healthy plants and pathogen-infected tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). After establishment of CMNs with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae between tomato plants, inoculation of ‘donor’ plants with the pathogen Alternaria solani led to increases in disease resistance and activities of the putative defensive enzymes, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and lipoxygenase in healthy neighbouring ‘receiver’ plants. The uninfected ‘receiver’ plants also activated six defence-related genes when CMNs connected ‘donor’ plants challenged with A. solani. This finding indicates that CMNs may function as a plant-plant underground communication conduit whereby disease resistance and induced defence signals can be transferred between the healthy and pathogen-infected neighbouring plants, suggesting that plants can ‘eavesdrop’ on defence signals from the pathogen-challenged neighbours through CMNs to activate defences before being attacked themselves.
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