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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461915 matches for " Winifred A. Atiah "
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The Spatio-Temporal Variability of Rainfall over the Agro-Ecological Zones of Ghana  [PDF]
Winifred A. Atiah, Leonard K. Amekudzi, Emmanuel Quansah, Kwasi Preko
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2019.93034
Abstract: Rainfall variability plays an important role in many socio-economic activities such as food security, livelihood and farming in Ghana. Rainfall impact studies are thus very crucial for proper management of these key sectors of the country. This paper examines the seasonal and annual rainfall variability in the four agro-ecological zones of Ghana from the CHIRPS V2 rainfall time series spanning a period of 1981-2015. The rainfall indices were computed with the aid of the FClimDex package whereas the trends of these indices were further tested using the Mann Kendall trend test. The results show good agreement (r ≥ 0.7) between CHIRPS V2 and gauge in almost all portions of country although high biases were observed especially in DJF season over parts of the Northeastern (NE) portions of the country. The mean seasonal rainfall climatology over the country is observed to be in the range of 20 - 80 mm, 60 - 200 mm, 100 - 220 mm and 40 - 180 mm in DJF, MAM, JJA and SON seasons respectively with high intensities of rainfall dominating Southwestern portions of the country. The trend analysis revealed positive trends of consecutive dry days in the Transition, Forest and Coastal zones and negative trends in the Savannah zone of the country. Decreasing trends of consecutive wet days are observed over the Savannah, Transition and Coastal zones whereas increasing trends dominate the Forest zone. Savannah, Forest and Transition zones show weak increasing trends of the number of heavy rainfall days whilst weak decreasing trends are observed over the Coastal zone of the country. Similarly, weak increasing trends of the number of very heavy rainfall days are observed over all the agro-ecological zones except in the Transition zone. It is observed that the annual wet day rainfall total has increasing trend in the Savannah and Forest zones of the country whereas decreasing trends cover the remainder of the zones. The trends of these indices in the agro-ecological zones were all significant at a significant value of 0.05. This paper assessed the performance of the CHIRPS V2 rainfall data over the region and reports on the biases in seasonal rainfall amounts which are limited in previous studies. These findings have adverse impacts on rain-fed agricultural practices, water resource management and food security over the country.
Validation of TRMM and FEWS Satellite Rainfall Estimates with Rain Gauge Measurement over Ashanti Region, Ghana  [PDF]
Leonard K. Amekudzi, Marian A. Osei, Winifred A. Atiah, Jeffrey N. A. Aryee, Maureen A. Ahiataku, Emmanuel Quansah, Kwasi Preko, Sylvester K. Danuor, Andreas H. Fink
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2016.64040
Abstract: Satellite rainfall estimates have predominantly been used for climate impact studies due to poor rain gauge network in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are limited microscale studies within the sub-region that have assessed the performance of these satellite products, which is the focus of the present study. This paper therefore considers validation of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Famine Early Warning System (FEWS) satellite estimates with rain gauge measurements over Ashanti region of Ghana. First, a consistency assessment of the two gauge data products, the Automatic Rain Gauge (ARG) and Ghana Meteorological Agency (GMet) Standard Rain Gauge (SRG) measurements, was performed. This showed a very good agreement with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Secondly, satellite rainfall products from TRMM and FEWS were validated with the two gauge measurements. Validation results showed good agreement with correlation coefficients of 0.6 and 0.7 for TRMM and FEWS with SRG, and 0.87 and 0.86 for TRMM and FEWS with ARG respectively. Probability Of Detection (POD) and Volumetric Hit Index (VHI) were found to be greater than 0.9. Volumetric Critical Success Index (VCSI) was 0.9 and 0.8 for TRMM and FEWS respectively with low False Alarm Ratio (FAR) and insignificant Volumetric Miss Index (VMI). In general, relatively low biases and RMSE values were observed. The biases were less than 1.3 and 0.8 for TRMM and FEWS-RFE respectively. These indicate high rainfall detection capabilities of both satellite products. In addition, both TRMM and FEWS were able to capture the onset, peak and cessation of the rainy season, as well as the dry spells. Although TRMM and FEWS sometimes under/overestimated rainfall, they have the potential to be used for agricultural and other hydro-climatic impact studies over the region. The Dynamic-Aerosol-Cloud-Chemistry Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project will provide an improved spatial gauge network database over the study area to enhance future validation and other climate impact studies.
Big Data—Building Software: Some Thoughts on the Future of Building Sciences  [PDF]
Winifred Elysse Newman
Creative Education (CE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.103038
Abstract: Building and sustaining our communities is the most significant challenge of our day. This means seeing and understanding the interrelatedness of economies, technologies, physical and natural systems. One way of achieving this objective is visualizing our options using big-data decision spaces where unique systems?arerepresented by dynamic flows of data create patterns, relationships and context. As seminal computer scientist Jim Gray articulated in 2003,?big data describes on the one hand extremely large data sets that through analysis generate patterns and associations; on the other?hand, it can be understood to encompass all potential data generated by any dynamic process, in short life on Earth as we know it”. This kind of ecological “data literacy” let us see beyond a mechanistic view of the phenomenal world in which the imagined universe is a machine composed of elementary building blocks, to a system view where the dominant model of the material world is a network of systems with interrelated and interdependent patterns of behavior. Adopting the systems?approach the challenge in designing resilient buildings is:?1) educating architects and engineers capable of using multiple and varied data to create multipart decision spaces, 2) assessing the impact visualizing data will have on all aspects of the building design, construction and fabrication process and 3) making increasingly large data-sets available to the AEC professionals and researchers to asses building performance and its impact on our design, delivery and maintenance of the built environment available.
The Relationship between Tests of Neurocognition and Performance on a Laparoscopic Simulator
Oumar Kuzbari,Howard Crystal,Pedram Bral,Rima A. A. Atiah,Imad Kuzbari,Amine Khachani,Muhammad Faisal Aslam,Howard Minkoff
Minimally Invasive Surgery , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/486174
Abstract: Objective. To estimate if there is a relationship between the results of tests of neurocognition and performance on a laparoscopic surgery simulator. Methods and Materials. Twenty participants with no prior laparoscopic experience had baseline cognitive tests administered (Trail Making Test, Part A and B (TMT-A and TMT-B), Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test), completed a demographic questionnaire, and then performed laparoscopy using a simulator. We correlated the results of cognitive tests with laparoscopic surgical performance. Results. One cognitive test sensitive to frontal lobe function, TMT-A, significantly correlated with laparoscopic surgical performance on the simulator (correlation coefficient of 0.534 with ). However, the correlation between performance and other cognitive tests (TMT-B, Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test) was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Laparoscopic performance may be related to measures of frontal lobe function. Neurocognitive tests may predict motor skills abilities and performance on laparoscopic simulator. 1. Introduction Laparoscopic surgery has become an increasingly important component of the gynecologist’s armamentarium. While several factors such as sleep deprivation [1, 2] and substance abuse [3] have been shown to effect abilities with this modality, determinants of skill among rested, sober trainees have not been as clearly delineated. Neurocognition is an important factor in all learning. Neurocognitive enhancement of surgeons through nonpharmacological and psychopharmacological methods has been the subject of recent media, political, and ethical interest [4] A large number of tests of neurocognition, each of which is focused on a different aspect of brain function, have been validated. The frontal brain in particular might be expected to play a role in laparoscopy because of its executive and motor functions that are established through extensive cortical and subcortical connections. Therefore, the following study was undertaken to assess the degree to which tests of neurocognition correlate with learning on laparoscopic simulators. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Population This was a cohort study of individuals at Maimonides Medical Center (MMC) who had no prior laparoscopic experience, who underwent tests of neurocognition and then performed a task on a laparoscopic simulator. Twenty volunteers (nineteen third year medical students and one midwife)
U.S. HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISM AND PLAN COLOMBIA
Tate,Winifred;
Colombia Internacional , 2009,
Abstract: non-governmental organizations claim to play a central role in defining u.s. foreign policy, particularly in the field of human rights. here, i will examine the role of human rights and humanitarian groups in the debates over u.s. foreign policy towards colombia, focusing on the design and subsequent additional appropriations for plan colombia, a multi-billion dollar aid package beginning in 2000. i argue that ngos were able to build on the legacy of prior human rights activism focusing on latin america, but failed to achieve significant grassroots mobilization around this issue. i examine the structural issues limiting such mobilization, as well as exploring how ngos did leverage legislative conditions placed on the assistance package to keep human rights concerns part of the debates over u.s. policy. this case study will contribute to the historical record of how policy is made and developed, adding to the growing literature exploring how human rights claims translate into specific governmental policies.
May His Will Be Done: A History of the Deeper Life Bible Church, 1973-2006
Winifred Akoda
International Journal of Asian Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: Church formation and domestication in Nigeria has undergone several changes from the orthodox to the Pentecostal, especially with varying interests of giving Christian life a new meaning. In historical context, this accounts for the multiplicity of churches as it is being witnessed in Nigeria. One of such responses does not exclude indigenous response to the forces of socio-economic change. This is evident in the flamboyant life style of many of the quasi-autonomous church leaders whose watchword is on blessings and prosperity and not salvation. Yet the Pastor Williams Folorunsho Kumuyi led Deeper Life Church, stands remarkable in his discipline and conservatism of the Christian ethics. As a lecturer of mathematics at the University of Lagos in 1973, he started a Bible study group in his quarters at the University of Lagos known as Flat 2. The Bible Study Group members persuaded Kumuyi to form a church, which he did on Sunday 7 November 1982. This study will make a historical excursion into the history of the Deeper Life Bible Church from 1973. This paper takes into cognizance the concept of gender in the formation of images and doctrines in relation to the promotion of Masculinities through social constructs of the leadership of the Deeper Life at the expense of their female counterparts. This development in the quest to emulate the historical Jesus of Nazareth only succeeds to represent men’s idea of Christianity in a monolithic manner that reflects only masculinities.
El activismo estadounidense en derechos humanos y el Plan Colombia.
Winifred Tate.
Colombia Internacional , 2009,
Abstract: Non-governmental organizations claim to play a central role in defining U.S. foreign policy, particularly in the field of human rights. Here, I will examine the role of human rights and humanitarian groups in the debates over U.S. foreign policy towards Colombia, focusing on the design and subsequent additional appropriations for Plan Colombia, a multi-billion dollar aid package beginning in 2000. I argue that NGOs were able to build on the legacy of prior human rights activism focusing on Latin America, but failed to achieve significant grassroots mobilization around this issue. I examine the structural issues limiting such mobilization, as well as exploring how NGOs did leverage legislative conditions placed on the assistance package to keep human rights concerns part of the debates over U.S. policy. This case study will contribute to the historical record of how policy is made and developed, adding to the growing literature exploring how human rights claims translate into specific governmental policies.
土荆芥的石油醚提取物及精油对冈比亚按蚊的杀虫活性
Abiodun,A.,DENLOYE,Oluwakemi,K.,AJELARA,Rasaq,A.,OLOWU,Adeolu,O.,ESHILOKUN,Winifred,A.,MAKANJUOLA
昆虫学报 , 2009,
Abstract: 在室内条件下测试了土荆芥Chenopodiumambrosioides叶片的石油醚提取物及精油对冈比亚按蚊Anophelesgambiae0~2d龄成虫和1~4龄幼虫的毒性。每一龄期各取30头幼虫分别接触50,100,250,500,750和1000mg/L提取物和精油,于24h和48h后记录死亡幼虫的数目。30头成虫在密封的长方形玻璃笼子中分别接触0.8,1.6,2.4μL/L土荆芥精油蒸气,24h后记录死亡率。结果表明,测试的提取物和精油对冈比亚按蚊的各龄幼虫和成虫均具有毒性。48h致死中浓度(LC50)的测试结果表明,石油醚提取物对1龄幼虫的毒性最强(14.89mg/L),其次是对4龄幼虫(18.90mg/L),对3龄幼虫的毒性最低(183.77mg/L);精油对4龄幼虫毒性最强(36.62mg/L),其次是对1龄幼虫(90.75mg/L)。推算的土荆芥精油对冈比亚按蚊的LC50为1.01μL/L。本研究揭示了土荆芥对冈比亚按蚊的防治潜力。
Determinants of (sustained) overweight and complaints in children and adolescents in primary care: the DOERAK cohort study design
Paulis Winifred D,van Middelkoop Marienke,Bueving Herman,Luijsterburg Pim A J
BMC Family Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-13-70
Abstract: Background Almost half of the adult Dutch population is currently overweight and the prevalence of overweight children is rising at alarming rates as well. Obese children consult their general practitioner (GP) more often than normal weight children. The Dutch government has assigned a key role to the GP in the prevention of overweight. The DOERAK cohort study aims to clarify differences between overweight and non-overweight children that consult the GP; are there differences in number of consultations and type and course of complaints? Is overweight associated with lower quality of life or might this be influenced by the type of complaint? What is the activity level of overweight children compared to non-overweight children? And is (sustained) overweight of children associated with parameters related to the energy balance equation? Methods/Design A total of 2000 overweight (n = 500) and non-overweight children (n = 1500) aged 2 to 18 years who consult their GP, for any type of complaint in the South-West of the Netherlands are included. At baseline, height, weight and waist circumference are measured during consultation. The number of GP consultations over the last twelve months and accompanying diagnoses are acquired from the medical file. Complaints, quality of life and parameters related to the energy balance equation are assessed with an online questionnaire children or parents fill out at home. Additionally, children or parents keep a physical activity diary during the baseline week, which is validated in a subsample (n = 100) with an activity monitor. Parents fill out a questionnaire about demographics, their own activity behaviour and perceptions on dietary habits and activity behaviour, health and weight status of their child. The physical and lifestyle behaviour questions are repeated at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. The present study is a prospective observational cohort in a primary care setting. Discussion The DOERAK cohort study is the first prospective study that investigates a large cohort of overweight and non-overweight children in primary care. The total study population is expected to be recruited by 2013, results will be available in 2015.
Bat Response to Differing Fire Severity in Mixed-Conifer Forest California, USA
Michael R. Buchalski, Joseph B. Fontaine, Paul A. Heady, John P. Hayes, Winifred F. Frick
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057884
Abstract: Wildlife response to natural disturbances such as fire is of conservation concern to managers, policy makers, and scientists, yet information is scant beyond a few well-studied groups (e.g., birds, small mammals). We examined the effects of wildfire severity on bats, a taxon of high conservation concern, at both the stand (<1 ha) and landscape scale in response to the 2002 McNally fire in the Sierra Nevada region of California, USA. One year after fire, we conducted surveys of echolocation activity at 14 survey locations, stratified in riparian and upland habitat, in mixed-conifer forest habitats spanning three levels of burn severity: unburned, moderate, and high. Bat activity in burned areas was either equivalent or higher than in unburned stands for all six phonic groups measured, with four groups having significantly greater activity in at least one burn severity level. Evidence of differentiation between fire severities was observed with some Myotis species having higher levels of activity in stands of high-severity burn. Larger-bodied bats, typically adapted to more open habitat, showed no response to fire. We found differential use of riparian and upland habitats among the phonic groups, yet no interaction of habitat type by fire severity was found. Extent of high-severity fire damage in the landscape had no effect on activity of bats in unburned sites suggesting no landscape effect of fire on foraging site selection and emphasizing stand-scale conditions driving bat activity. Results from this fire in mixed-conifer forests of California suggest that bats are resilient to landscape-scale fire and that some species are preferentially selecting burned areas for foraging, perhaps facilitated by reduced clutter and increased post-fire availability of prey and roosts.
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