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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 128961 matches for " Winfield Mark O "
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Cold- and light-induced changes in the transcriptome of wheat leading to phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth
Mark O Winfield, Chungui Lu, Ian D Wilson, Jane A Coghill, Keith J Edwards
BMC Plant Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-9-55
Abstract: We observed novel responses of several genes thought to be of major importance in vernalisation-induced phase transition, and identified several MADS-box genes that might play an important role in the onset of flowering. In addition, we saw responses in genes of the Gibberellin pathway that would indicate that this pathway also has some role to play in phase transition.Phase transition in wheat is more complex than previously reported, and there is evidence that day-length has an influence on genes that were once thought to respond exclusively to an extended period of cold.In plants, the timing of the change from vegetative to reproductive growth is critical for successful reproduction, and must occur when both internal and external conditions are appropriate. The environmental cues of day-length and temperature have a strong influence on flowering, and the ability to perceive and respond to these cues is controlled through the photoperiod and vernalisation pathways, respectively [1].Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is normally a long-day plant, flowering in spring and early summer when days are lengthening [2]. Additionally, wheat cultivars can be broadly divided into two categories, winter or spring, according to whether they require an extended period of cold to become competent to flower. In winter varieties, change from vegetative to reproductive phase is promoted by exposure to low temperatures (3°C – 8°C) for 4–6 weeks. These varieties are planted in the autumn so that seedlings are exposed to the cold of winter and so become competent to flower. However, they only become committed to flower as days lengthen in the spring. In addition to these two external factors, different wheat varieties can be distinguished by the intrinsic rate at which they tend to pass from floral induction to heading. This tendency is referred to as earliness per se [3].In Arabidopsis, the genetic factors underpinning phase change have been well-characterised [4-6]. Four major genetic pat
CerealsDB 2.0: an integrated resource for plant breeders and scientists
Wilkinson Paul A,Winfield Mark O,Barker Gary LA,Allen Alexandra M
BMC Bioinformatics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-13-219
Abstract: Background Food security is an issue that has come under renewed scrutiny amidst concerns that substantial yield increases in cereal crops are required to feed the world’s booming population. Wheat is of fundamental importance in this regard being one of the three most important crops for both human consumption and livestock feed; however, increase in crop yields have not kept pace with the demands of a growing world population. In order to address this issue, plant breeders require new molecular tools to help them identify genes for important agronomic traits that can be introduced into elite varieties. Studies of the genome using next-generation sequencing enable the identification of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be used by breeders to identify and follow genes when breeding new varieties. The development and application of next-generation sequencing technologies has made the characterisation of SNP markers in wheat relatively cheap and straightforward. There is a growing need for the widespread dissemination of this information to plant breeders. Description CerealsDB is an online resource containing a range of genomic datasets for wheat (Triticum aestivum) that will assist plant breeders and scientists to select the most appropriate markers for marker assisted selection. CerealsDB includes a database which currently contains in excess of 100,000 putative varietal SNPs, of which several thousand have been experimentally validated. In addition, CerealsDB contains databases for DArT markers and EST sequences, and links to a draft genome sequence for the wheat variety Chinese Spring. Conclusion CerealsDB is an open access website that is rapidly becoming an invaluable resource within the wheat research and plant breeding communities.
Design and market considerations for axial flux superconducting electric machine design
Mark D. Ainslie,Ashley George,Robert Shaw,Lewis Dawson,Andy Winfield,Marina Steketee,Simon Stockley
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/507/3/032002
Abstract: In this paper, the authors investigate a number of design and market considerations for an axial flux superconducting electric machine design that uses high temperature superconductors. This work was carried out as part of the University of Cambridge's Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning ETECH Project programme, designed to accelerate entrepreneurship and diffusion of innovations based on early stage and potentially disruptive technologies from the University. The axial flux machine design is assumed to utilise high temperature superconductors in both wire (stator winding) and bulk (rotor field) forms, to operate over a temperature range of 65-77 K, and to have a power output in the range from 10s of kW up to 1 MW (typical for axial flux machines), with approximately 2-3 T as the peak trapped field in the bulk superconductors. The authors firstly investigate the applicability of this type of machine as a generator in small- and medium-sized wind turbines, including the current and forecasted market and pricing for conventional turbines. A study is also carried out on the machine's applicability as an in-wheel hub motor for electric vehicles. Some recommendations for future applications are made based on the outcome of these two studies. Next, the cost of YBCO-based superconducting (2G HTS) wire is analysed with respect to competing wire technologies and compared with current conventional material costs. Current wire costs for both 1G and 2G HTS are still too great to be economically feasible for such superconducting devices, but round wire, so-called 3G HTS, conductors may be a promising new option with a view to the future. Finally, different cooling options are assessed for the machine design and the analysis suggests that waiting for the maturation of pulse-tube cooling technology may be the best option for this particular application.
Well-posedness of Einstein's Equation with Redshift Data
Christopher Winfield
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3247999
Abstract: We study the solvability of a system of ordinary differential equations derived from null geodesics of the LTB metric with data given in terms of a so-called redshift parameter. Data is introduced along these geodesics by the luminosity distance function. We check our results with luminosity distance depending on the cosmological constant and with the well-known FRW model.
Reflexiones en torno a la arquitectura y el urbanismo moderno en Latinoamérica (1929-1960)
Fernando N. Winfield Reyes
Urbano , 2005,
Asymptotic Methods of ODEs: Exploring Singularities of the Second Kind
Christopher J. Winfield
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We develop symbolic methods of asymptotic approximations for solutions of linear ordinary differential equations and use to them stabilize numerical calculations. Our method follows classical analysis for first-order systems and higher-order scalar equations where growth behavior is expressed in terms of elementary functions. We then recast our equations in mollified form - thereby obtaining stability.
Local Solvability on H_1: Non-homogeneous Operators
Christopher J. Winfield
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Local solvability and non-solvability are classified for left-invariant differential operators on the Heisenberg group H_1 of the form L=P_n(X,Y)+Q(X,Y) where the P_n are certain homogeneous polynomials of order n greater than or equal to 2 and Q is of lower order with X= \partial_x, Y=\partial_y+x\partial_w on R^3. We extend previous studies of operators of the form P_n(X,Y) via representations involving ordinary differential operators with a parameter.
Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Advanced Vehicles
Lin Gao,Zach C. Winfield
Energies , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/en5030605
Abstract: Many advanced vehicle technologies, including electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), are gaining attention throughout the World due to their capability to improve fuel efficiencies and emissions. When evaluating the operational successes of these new fuel-efficient vehicles, it is essential to consider energy usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the entire lifetimes of the vehicles, which are comprised of two independent cycles: a fuel cycle and a vehicle cycle. This paper intends to contribute to the assessment of the environmental impacts from the alternative technologies throughout the lifetimes of various advanced vehicles through objective comparisons. The methodology was applied to six commercial vehicles that are available in the U.S. and that have similar dimensions and performances. We also investigated the shifts in energy consumption and emissions through the use of electricity and drivers’ behavior regarding the frequencies of battery recharging for EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). This study thus gives insight into the impacts of the electricity grid on the total energy cycle of a vehicle lifetime. In addition, the total ownership costs of the selected vehicles were examined, including considerations of the fluctuating gasoline prices. The cost analysis provides a resource for drivers to identify optimal choices for their driving circumstances.
La política de vivienda en el contexto de la pobreza urbana en México: retos y perspectivas de Participación social
Mara Cortés,Fernando Winfield
Revista INVI , 2006,
Abstract: En las últimas décadas los gobiernos de los países del mundo han tratado de incorporar dentro de sus planes y programas de desarrollo una serie de políticas derivadas de compromisos internacionales, tratando de que en la escala de lo local sean pertinentes para combatir la pobreza urbana y las problemáticas de ella derivadas, en particular la carencia de vivienda y servicios, educación, salud, empleo, así como otros factores que influyen directamente en la calidad de vida de la mayoría de la población. Este esfuerzo requiere no sólo de seguir los acuerdos internacionales bajo diversas estrategias, sino adaptarlos a la condición local por medio de la práctica reflexiva de las instituciones encargadas de implementar estos programas, los profesionales del desarrollo, el sector privado y las universidades, incorporando de una forma cada vez más sólida a los actores de la sociedad civil en este complejo proceso. En este sentido, México no es la excepción. Se ha buscado hacer una reflexión sobre el papel de las políticas de vivienda que han venido operando en el país, los actores involucrados, los alcances y expectativas que las buenas prácticas podrían tener en un futuro y sobre todo, las posibilidades de cambio y mitigación de la pobreza urbana a través de estrategias de participación social que atiendan de un modo más operativo e incluyente el satisfactor habitacional para grandes grupos de la población en este país
Adroitly and Persuasively Preaching to the Microbial Choir
Mark O. Martin
Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education , 2010, DOI: 10.1128/jmbe.v11i1.148
Abstract: N/A
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