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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 80055 matches for " Wilmar Dias da Silva "
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Anaphylatoxins: From Supposed Toxin Anaphylactics to Effective Mediators of the Early Events of Inflammation  [PDF]
Wilmar Dias da Silva
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.24043
Abstract: This review updates original data describing the experiments showing the complement origin of anaphylatoxins unexplainable submerged under the surface of the articles related to the subject. Next, recalls subsequent data describing the anaphylatoxins peptide nature and sequences, the cell receptors with which they interact and activate and the outcome of the cell responses. The review continues by highlighting the anaphylatoxin biological properties focusing on the unequivocal participation of these mediators in inflammation. The review concludes bringing data reinforcing the promising use of these peptides as molecular primers to create specific and efficient pharmacological antagonists.
Repeated inoculations of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) are needed to induce a strong humoral immune response against antigens expressed by the bacteria  [PDF]
Monique C. da Silva, Elena B. Lasunskaia, Wilmar Dias da Silva
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2013.33011

The cellular immune response elicited by Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been carefully investigated, but the humoral immune response has been partially neglected. BALB/c mice were immunized with BCG strain used to immunize humans. Anti-BCG antibodies, as assayed by ELISA, began to appear in the sera after the third week of immunization and plateaued three weeks after the 8th immunization. The total immunoglobulins (Igs) were purified by caprylic acid method from pooled serum collected after the 8th immunization. Anti-BCG antigen antibodies were detected in the total Igs preparation as well as in IgG, IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, but not in the IgG3. Distinct BCG proteins were recognized the IgGs in Western blot analysis. Opsonization of BCG bacilli by the purified Igs potentiated internalization of the bacteria by murine Raw 264.7 macrophages. The intracellular BCG elimination coincided with the induction of NO production, which was more pronounced in cells infected with opsonized BCG compared to those infected with the non-opsonized bacteria. Coincidently, the production of NO was also higher in macrophages infected with opsonized BCG (maximal NO production at 48 h of incubation). The obtained results demonstrate that repeated inoculations of BCG effectively activate the humoral immune response, justifying the use of BCG as

Development of Equine IgG Antivenoms against Major Snake Groups in Mozambique
Felipe Raimondi Guidolin?,Celso Pereira Caricati?,José Roberto Marcelino?,Wilmar Dias da Silva
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2016, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004325
Abstract: Background Snake envenoming is a significant public health problem in underdeveloped and developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, it is estimated that 90,000–400,000 envenomations occur each year, resulting in 3,500–32,000 deaths. Envenomings are caused by snakes from the Viperidae (Bitis spp. and Echis spp.) and Elapidae (Naja spp. and Dendroaspis spp.) families. The African continent has been suffering from a severe antivenom crisis and current antivenom production is only sufficient to treat 25% of snakebite cases. Our aim is to develop high-quality antivenoms against the main snake species found in Mozambique. Methods Adult horses primed with the indicated venoms were divided into 5 groups (B. arietans; B. nasicornis + B. rhinoceros; N. melanoleuca; N. mossambica; N. annulifera + D. polylepis + D. angusticeps) and reimmunized two times for antivenom production. Blood was collected, and plasma was separated and subjected to antibody purification using caprylic acid. Plasmas and antivenoms were subject to titration, affinity determination, cross-recognition assays and in vivo venom lethality neutralization. A commercial anti-Crotalic antivenom was used for comparison. Results The purified antivenoms exhibited high titers against B. arietans, B. nasicornis and B. rhinoceros (5.18 x 106, 3.60 x 106 and 3.50 x 106 U-E/mL, respectively) and N. melanoleuca, N. mossambica and N. annulifera (7.41 x 106, 3.07 x 106 and 2.60 x 106 U-E/mL, respectively), but lower titers against the D. angusticeps and D. polylepis (1.87 x 106 and 1.67 x 106 U-E/mL). All the groups, except anti-N. melanoleuca, showed significant differences from the anti-Crotalic antivenom (7.55 x 106 U-E/mL). The affinity index of all the groups was high, ranging from 31% to 45%. Cross-recognition assays showed the recognition of proteins with similar molecular weight in the venoms and may indicate the possibility of paraspecific neutralization. The three monospecific antivenoms were able to provide in vivo protection. Conclusion Our results indicate that the anti-Bitis and anti-Naja antivenoms developed would be useful for treating snakebite envenomations in Mozambique, although their effectiveness should to be increased. We propose instead the development of monospecific antivenoms, which would serve as the basis for two polyvalent antivenoms, the anti-Bitis and anti-Elapidae. Polyvalent antivenoms represent an increase in treatment quality, as they have a wider range of application and are easier to distribute and administer to snake envenoming victims.
Novel Immunogenic Epitopes in the NaPi-IIb Protein: Production of Monospecific Antibodies Using Synthetic Peptides Outlined on Isoform Specific Regions of the Type IIb Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Transporter (NaPi-IIb)  [PDF]
?ngela Alice Amadeu Megale, Jorge Mário da Costa Ferreira Júnior, Letícia Batista Azevedo Rangel, Maria Del Pilar Estevez Diz, Max Senna Mano, Paulo Marcelo Gehm Hoff, Priscila Hess Lopes, Roberto Jun Arai, Wilmar Dias da Silva
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.72015
Abstract: NaPi-IIb is a multiple passage protein membrane which is primarily responsible for phosphate uptake in the kidney and in the small intestine. Beyond its physiological functions, their involvement with carcinogenesis was initially described in mid-2003, due to its distinct level of expression in normal and tumor cells of the ovary. Although less common than cervical cancer, epithelial ovarian cancer is considered the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, which is mainly due to diagnosis in the advanced stages as a result of the absence of symptoms during the onset of the disease and the lack of tools for early detection. Here, we produce antibodies that are anti-synthetic peptides that are derived from the regions of second extracellular loop of NaPi-IIb, which is a non-overlapping portion of MX35 epitope. These two 15 distinct amino acid residue peptides, designated as Let#1 and Let#2, are engineered in a very thorough way to detect specific sites only in this isoform, thus excluding cross-reactivity with other carriers of the same family. The lack of immunogenicity of small peptides is surpassed by the conjugation with carrier proteins. Using immunochemical methods, we demonstrate that polyclonal antibodies that are mono-specific for the Let#1 and Let#2 peptides recognize proteins that express similar amino acid sequences during blood circulation. Additionally, using flow cytometry, we identify NaPi-IIb in NIH:OVCAR-3 cells. The clear identification of two shorter peptides on the extracellular loop of NaPi-IIb, which are far from the monoclonal antibody MX35-recognizing epitopes, adds new promising tools for ovarian cancer follow-up and staging.
Difference in Virulence of Mycobacterium avium Isolates Sharing Indistinguishable DNA Fingerprint Determined in Murine Model of Lung Infection
Eduardo Pinheiro Amaral, Thereza Liberman Kipnis, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de Carvalho, Wilmar Dias da Silva, Sylvia Cardoso Le?o, Elena B. Lasunskaia
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021673
Abstract: Background Opportunistic Mycobacterium avium typically causes disease in immunocompromised patients and in some groups of apparently healthy individuals. The high virulence of some bacterial lineages increases the disease risk. High-resolution molecular genotyping studies of M. avium clinical isolates demonstrated that some genotype patterns were more prevalent than others, suggesting that close genetic relatedness of these successful isolates sharing a similar genotype could determine similar biological properties associated with high virulence. Methods and Findings In this study, we aimed to compare the virulence and pathogenic properties of two epidemiologically unrelated M. avium isolates sharing an indistinguishable DNA fingerprint in a well-characterized model of pulmonary infection in mice, resistant or susceptible to mycobacteria. The mice, C57BL/6 wild- type or IFN-gamma gene disrupted (GKO), respectively, were intratracheally infected with two isolates, H27 (human blood isolate) and P104 (pig lymph node isolate), and the lungs were examined for bacterial loads, histopathology and cytokine gene expression. The obtained data demonstrated significant differences in the virulence properties of these strains. Although the H27 strain grew significantly faster than P104 in the early stage of infection, this bacterium induced protective immunity that started to reduce bacterial numbers in the wild- type mice, whereas the P104 strain established a chronic infection. In the GKO mice, both strains were capable of causing a chronic infection, associated with higher bacterial burdens and severe lung pathology, in a similar manner. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrated that the studied isolates differed in the pathogenic properties although were indistinguishable by actually widely used genotyping techniques demonstrating that the genotype similarity does not predict similarity in virulence of M. avium isolates.
Nutritional and Health Benefits of Carrots and Their Seed Extracts  [PDF]
Jo?o Carlos da Silva Dias
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.522227
Abstract: Carrot is a root vegetable with carotenoids, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, vitamins, and minerals, all of which possess numerous nutritional and health benefits. Besides lending truth to the old adage that carrots are good for eyes, carotenoids, polyphenols and vitamins present in carrot act as antioxidants, anticarcinogens, and immunoenhancers. Anti-diabetic, cholesterol and cardiovascular disease lowering, anti-hypertensive, hepatoprotective, renoprotective, and wound healing benefits of carrot have also been reported. The cardio- and hepatoprotective, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of carrot seed extracts are also noteworthy. All are discussed in this review article.
Plant Breeding for Harmony between Modern Agriculture Production and the Environment  [PDF]
Jo?o Carlos da Silva Dias
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.61008
Abstract: The world population is estimated to be 9.2 billion in 2050. To sufficiently feed these people, the total food production will have to increase 60% - 70%. Climate models predict that warmer tem-peratures and increases in the frequency and duration of drought during the present century will have negative impact on agricultural productivity. These new global challenges require a more complex integrated agricultural and breeding agenda that focuses on livelihood improvement coupled with agro-ecosystem resilience, eco-efficiency and sustainability rather than just on crop productivity gains. Intensifying sustainability agro-ecosystems by producing more food with lower inputs, adapting agriculture to climate change, conserving agro-biodiversity through its use, and making markets to work for the small farmers are needed to address the main issues of our time. Plant breeding has played a vital role in the successful development of modern agriculture. Development of new cultivars will be required while reducing the impact of agriculture on the environment and maintaining sufficient production. Conventional plant breeding will remain the backbone of crop improvement strategies. Genetic engineering has the potential to address some of the most challenging biotic constraints faced by farmers, which are not easily addressed through conventional plant breeding alone. Protective measures and laws, especially patenting, must be moderated to eliminate coverage so broad that it stifles innovation. They must be made less restrictive to encourage research and free flow of materials and information. Small farmers have an important role in conserving and using crop biodiversity. Public sector breeding must remain vigorous, especially in areas where the private sector does not function. This will often require benevolent public/private partnerships as well as government support. Active and positive connections between the private and public breeding sectors and large-scale gene banks are required to avoid a possible conflict involving breeders’ rights, gene preservation and erosion. Plant breeding can be a powerful tool to bring “harmony” between agriculture and the environment, but partnerships and cooperation are needed to make this a reality.
Guiding strategies for breeding vegetable cultivars  [PDF]
Jo?o Carlos da Silva Dias
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.51002

Vegetables are considered essential for well-balanced diets. The production and marketing of vegetables crops are undergoing continuous change globally. This is mainly due to the growing demands of consumers for safe and healthy vegetables, increased urbanisation of societies, and the growth in scale and influence of supermarkets chains. Horticultural science can respond to many of these challenges through research, breeding and innovation that can seek to gain more efficient methods of crop production, refined post-harvest storage and handling methods, newer and higher value vegetable cultivars and demonstration of their health benefits. Vegetable breeding has to address and satisfy the needs of both the consumer and the producer. Innovation in vegetable breeding depends on specific knowledge, the development and application of new technologies, access to genetic resources, and capital to utilise them. The driving force behind this innovation is acquiring or increasing market share. Access to technology, as well as biodiversity, is essential for the development of new vegetable cultivars. A few multinational corporations, whose vast economic power has effectively marginalized the role of public sector breeding as well as local, small/medium-scale seed companies, dominate the global vegetable seed trade. For most vegetable crops, only a few multinational seed corporations are controlling large part of the world market. This situation makes a growing part of the global vegetable supply dependent on a few seed providers. The multinational seed corporations ensued from merging some small or medium vegetable breeding programs to reduce costs. There may be fewer vegetable breeders in the future and growers will rely on seeds with a narrow genetic base. In order to meet future needs of vegetable breeders it is important that educational programs incorporate rapidly changing new technologies with classical content and methods. Active and positive connections between the private and public breeding sectors and large-scale gene banks are required to avoid a possible conflict involving breeders’ rights, gene preservation and erosion. Horticulturists will need to develop cultural practices and vegetable breeders to breed vegetables for a multifunctional horticulture (diversity, health promotion, post-harvest, year round suply, etc.) and to cope with harsher climate conditions and

Efeito da atividade sexual, do sexo e da linhagem geográfica sobre a longevidade de Megaselia scalaris Loew (Diptera, Phoridae)
Silva, Heriberto Dias da;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752000000400001
Abstract: longevity is an important characteristic of life history of species which is influenced by environment, genetic constituition and sexual activity. three sexual activity regimes were investigated in three geographical lineages in megaselia scalaris loew, 1866 that have been maintened in the laboratory at 25oc. it was observed that virgin flies are more longevous than others, females more than males, and a sex-lineage interaction underlying this pattern variation. it was observed an inverse relation between the environmental temperature of the lineages's locality and longevity.
Entre a cruz e a espada: religi?o, política e controle social nas Minas do Ouro (1693-1745)
Dias, Renato da Silva;
Varia Historia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-87752010000100009
Abstract: this paper focuses on the political implications regarding the catholicism implementation in the hinterland of the gold captaincy of minas gerais-brazil, during its organization (1693-1745), empathizing the main difficulties faced by the portuguese crown in order to establish the religious life in this territory. the political aspect can not be investigated only in its more apparent record, since it also lays on more profound causes rooted in the religious imagery. consequently, before the "real" complexity, it became necessary to verify its mediations, limits and the dependence/independence coefficient between this instance and the religious facet. the analysis of the political aspect via "religious issue" demands further effort and reflection in order to understand men in their own time, as active social agents, although many times they act under extremely hard circumstances. to do so, this study is conducted in the light of the coeval documentation, especially that recorded by the government office.
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