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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219922 matches for " Williamson C "
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Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections
C. Prudhomme,J. Williamson
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2013,
Abstract: Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from 12 equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman–Monteith equations reproduces best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the 12 PET equations from HadRM3-Q0. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction) of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen–Haise and calibrated Blaney–Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley–Taylor, Makkink, and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as, when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data, this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within the range of uncertainty defined by the ensemble of 12 PET equations. The changes show a clear northwest–southeast gradient of PET increase with largest (smallest) changes in the northwest in January (July and October) respectively. However, the range in magnitude of PET changes due to the choice of PET method shown in this study for Great Britain suggests that PET uncertainty is a challenge facing the assessment of climate change impact on hydrology mostly ignored up to now.
Educación en la Araucanía: El mirar de los ni os y ni as mapuche sobre sí mismos
Guillermo Williamson C
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2012,
Abstract:
Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections
C. Prudhomme,J. Williamson
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-10-597-2013
Abstract: Potential evapotranspiration PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from twelve equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman-Monteith equations reproduce best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically-based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the twelve PET equations. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction) of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen-Hense and calibrated Blaney-Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley-Taylor, Makkink and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within the range of uncertainty defined by the ensemble of twelve PET equations. The changes show a clear northwest-southeast gradient of PET increase with largest (smallest) changes in the northwest in January (July and October) respectively. However, the range in magnitude of PET changes due to the choice of PET method shown in this study for Great Britain suggests that PET uncetainty is perhaps one of the greatest challenges facing the assessment of climate change impact on hydrology.
Nursing Regulation for the New Millennium: The Mutual Recognition Model.
Hutcherson, C. and Williamson, S
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 1999,
Abstract: This article describes a new regulatory model for the profession of nursing developed by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN), namely the mutual recognition model. In recent years, environmental changes in the health care delivery system, technological advances, and changes in the expectations of the health care consumer have necessitated revisions in the way nursing is regulated to ensure the protection of the public. A number of potential regulatory models that have been proposed for regulation of today's health care professions are described. The interstate compact, which is the mechanism to implement the mutual recognition model of nurse licensure, is described in terms of jurisdiction, discipline, information sharing and administration of the compact. The current status of this mutual recognition model in eight states is presented.
Strategy-Proof Prediction Markets
Ayman Ghoneim,Robert C. Williamson
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Prediction markets aggregate agents' beliefs regarding a future event, where each agent is paid based on the accuracy of its reported belief when compared to the realized outcome. Agents may strategically manipulate the market (e.g., delay reporting, make false reports) aiming for higher expected payments, and hence the accuracy of the market's aggregated information will be in question. In this study, we present a general belief model that captures how agents influence each other beliefs, and show that there are three necessary and sufficient conditions for agents to behave truthfully in scoring rule based markets (SRMs). Given that these conditions are restrictive and difficult to satisfy in real-life, we present novel strategy-proof SRMs where agents are truthful while dismissing all these conditions. Although achieving such a strong form of truthfulness increases the worst-case loss in the new markets, we show that this is the minimum loss required to dismiss these conditions.
Plague: Infections of Companion Animals and Opportunities for Intervention
Petra C.F. Oyston,Diane Williamson
Animals , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ani1020242
Abstract: Plague is a zoonotic disease, normally circulating in rodent populations, transmitted to humans most commonly through the bite of an infected flea vector. Secondary infection of the lungs results in generation of infectious aerosols, which pose a significant hazard to close contacts. In enzootic areas, plague infections have been reported in owners and veterinarians who come into contact with infected pets. Dogs are relatively resistant, but can import infected fleas into the home. Cats are acutely susceptible, and can present a direct hazard to health. Reducing roaming and hunting behaviours, combined with flea control measures go some way to reducing the risk to humans. Various vaccine formulations have been developed which may be suitable to protect companion animals from contracting plague, and thus preventing onward transmission to man. Since transmission has resulted in a number of fatal cases of plague, the vaccination of domestic animals such as cats would seem a low cost strategy for reducing the risk of infection by this serious disease in enzootic regions.
EQUIDAD, INEQUIDAD Y EDUCACION SUPERIOR: APRENDIZAJES DE UN PREUNIVERSITARIO PARA JOVENES DE LA EDUCACION DE ADULTOS
Williamson C,Guillermo; Rodríguez Frigolett,Claudia;
Estudios pedagógicos (Valdivia) , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-07052010000200015
Abstract: the article presents and reflects about a set of learnings generated by an unprecedented experience in chile: the organization of the first (2009) precollege institute implemented only to students of adults' education. the preco-llege institutes are an expression of how the regular educational system and that of the higher education reproduce the inequity regarding the college or university access. the experience was systematically studied: observed, registered, accompanied and evaluated by an academic team from the university de la frontera that was in charge of the experience. the results and learnings of this study analyze the inequity of the relation between the invisible education of adults attending secondary and higher education, starting from an action that partly sought to alter this situation recognizing the generational change taking place in the adults' education.
MOVILIDAD SOCIAL INTERGENERACIONAL POR ORIGEN éTNICO: EVIDENCIA EMPíRICA REGIóN DE LA ARAUCANíA, CHILE
Cantero M,Violeta; Williamson C,Guillermo;
Universum (Talca) , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-23762009000100003
Abstract: the study shows that araucania region has a significant social intergenerational rate of mobility, related to higher educational achievements on younger generations. on the ethnics' issue, it shows that mapuche individuals have less social mobility than non-mapuche people, where mapuches have short distance or horizontal mobility. on the social structure, it also demonstrates an important transformation process, with fewer agriculture related jobs and wider more socially accepted urban positions.
MOVILIDAD SOCIAL INTERGENERACIONAL POR ORIGEN éTNICO: EVIDENCIA EMPíRICA REGIóN DE LA ARAUCANíA, CHILE
Violeta Cantero M,Guillermo Williamson C
Universum : Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales , 2009,
Abstract: El estudio evidencia que la Región de La Araucanía presenta una significativa tasa de movilidad social intergeneracional, la cual se relaciona con los mayores logros educacionales de las nuevas generaciones. En el tema étnico, refleja que los individuos de origen mapuche son menos móviles socialmente que las personas no mapuches, experimentando los primeros una movilidad más bien de distancia corta u horizontal. Además, el estudio demuestra un importante proceso de transformación en la estructura social, con una reducción de las ocupaciones ligadas a la agricultura y una ampliación de las clases ocupacionales urbanas de mayor connotación social. The study shows that Araucania Region has a significant social intergenerational rate of mobility, related to higher educational achievements on younger generations. On the ethnics' issue, it shows that mapuche individuals have less social mobility than non-mapuche people, where mapuches have short distance or horizontal mobility. On the social structure, it also demonstrates an important transformation process, with fewer agriculture related jobs and wider more socially accepted urban positions.
Avances y desafíos de la educación intercultural bilingüe en las ciudades: el caso del municipio de la pintana (región metropolitana, Chile)
Guillermo Williamson C.,Patricia Gómez R.
Cuadernos Interculturales , 2006,
Abstract: El artículo aborda la situación general de la Educación Intercultural Bilingüe en Chile, en su expresión urbana y presenta el caso de lo que se realiza en el Municipio de La Pintana a través de la Coordinación de EIB. Se describen situaciones y tendencias y se plantean avances y desafíos específi cos.
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