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Gifted and Talented?  [PDF]
David Williams
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.67068
Abstract: While I am sure that the majority of papers in this issue will be detailed research reports, I think it may be worthwhile to offer you my recollections on how, as a child in the 1970s who will now be labelled as gifted and talented, I am helped by what must have been a very forward looking local education authority and school to enjoy and excel in mathematics and music. They show how focussed and well directed efforts by a small number of people can make a profound difference to the educational experience of a child labelled as gifted and talented without necessarily requiring significant changes to the teaching strategies for the rest of the class in which that individual finds himself.
Evaluation of the mood repair hypothesis of compulsive buying  [PDF]
Alishia D. Williams
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.22012
Abstract: Compulsive buying (CB) is a proposed disorder of dysregulated buying behaviour that is associated with high rates of Axis I comorbidity, particularly depression and anxiety. It has been proposed that purchasing behaviours may serve as a maladaptive means of alleviating negative affect in vulnerable individuals. The aim of the current study was to experimentally manipulate affect to test this mood repair hypothesis. Compulsive buyers (n = 26) and pathological gamblers (n = 23) diagnosed using structured clinical interviews (SCID) and healthy controls (n = 24) were randomly assigned to either a negative or positive mood-induction procedure (MIP) and participated in an experimental buying task. Results revealed that, irrespective of mood induction condition, compulsive buyers reported a greater urge to acquire items, purchased more items, and spent a greater total amount of money during the buying task when compared to the healthy control group. Compulsive buyers were also faster than pathological gamblers in making decisions to purchase, even after controlling for motor impulsivity (BIS). There was, however, no main effect of mood-induction condition or group by condition interaction. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
Malignant hyperthermia: A runaway thermogenic futile cycle at the sodium channel level  [PDF]
Charles H. Williams
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2014.53025
Abstract:

Malignant Hyperthermia (“MH”)—the rapid onset of extremely high fever with muscle rigidity—is caused by a runaway heat production futile cycle mediated via the sodium channels at the myoneural receptor sites. MH is not triggered by non-depolarizing muscle relaxants; however, depolarizing muscle relaxants may trigger it [1]. Here we present a de novo hypothesis of how MH is triggered and develops. We believe that the acetylcholine receptor/sodium channels in the muscles of MH susceptible pigs initiate MH by allowing an increased flux of sodium ions when it is depolarized by acetylcholine or other depolarizing agents, such as succinylcholine and Halothane. Our theory is consistent with our observations of the effects of general anesthetics over twenty years. Succinylcholine is a depolarizing agent that is a potent MH trigger. Acetylcholine, the natural depolarizing muscle activator, may trigger MH if the susceptible patient or animal is exposed to sufficient stress, i.e., during strenuous activity, such as transport, fighting, breeding, etc. Halothane apparently destabilizes the myoneural sodium channels, which rapidly induces MH. The increased sodium channel activity releases heat with cascades that further releases of heat which results in the rapid onset of MH. MH susceptible pigs have increased action potential amplitudes at their myoneural junctions that are abnormally long in duration. This increased activity is thought to induce hypertrophy of muscle mass, increase metabolic rate, and cause other physical manifestations. When slaughtered, this increased metabolic activity causes the rapid post mortem release of heat in the muscles of MH susceptible pigs and, at the same time, the accumulation of low acidity, all of which denatures the muscle proteins to result in a pale, soft, exudative, pork meat considered to be of lesser quality for human consumption. The potency of inhalation anesthetics as a MH triggers varies widely. The inhalation anesthetic Halothane is a strong trigger of MH, causing MH within minutes of exposure. In contrast, the anesthetic Sevoflurane is a very weak trigger of MH, requiring several hours of inhalation exposure to trigger MH. Because of this, changing from Halothane to

Design and Implementation of a Multi-Sensor Based Object Detecting and Removing Autonomous Robot Exploration System  [PDF]
Fan Wu, Johnathan Williams
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.27002
Abstract:

Developing autonomous mobile robot system has been a hot topic in AI area. With recent advances in technology, autonomous robots are attracting more and more attention worldwide, and there are a lot of ongoing research and development activities in both industry and academia. In complex ground environment, obstacles positions are uncertain. Path finding for robots in such environment is very hot issues currently. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a multi-sensor based object detecting and moving autonomous robot exploration system, 4RE, with the VEX robotics design system. With the goals of object detecting and removing in complex ground environment with different obstacles, a novel object detecting and removing algorithms is proposed and implemented. Experimental results indicate that our robot system with our object detecting and removing algorithm can effectively detect the obstacles on the path and remove them in complex ground environment and avoid collision with the obstacles.

Virginia Woolf’s History of Sexual Victimization: A Case Study in Light of Current Research  [PDF]
Lucia C. A. Williams
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.510128
Abstract:

Virginia Woolf’s history of sexual victimization is presented in a case study format, and reviewed in light of the present literature on the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) to human development. The methodology to compose the case study involved reviewing the works of Woolf’s main biographers, the author’s memoirs, and the groundbreaking work of Louise DeSalvo, presenting data from Woolf’s diaries and letters, in which sexual abuse is disclosed. Woolf was sexually abused by her two older half-brothers. The abuse was extremely traumatic, and lasted several years. The various mental health symptoms that Woolf experienced are consistent with the literature of CSA. Woolf also presented some adequate coping skills by disclosing the CSA publicly, keeping records of her depressive episodes, and seeking help. Like many incest survivors, Woolf’s sexual abuse was minimized and questioned by biographers. In addition to Woolf’s enormous literary legacy, her knowledge of psychology was impressive. She was a feminist, as well as a visionary in exploring the effects of CSA before other incest survivors. Understanding her life influences is advantageous, not only to literary scholars but to most readers, and mainly clinicians and researchers are interested in the dynamics of sexual abuse.

An Exploratory Study: Reducing Nursing Students Stress Levels Facilitate Perceived Quality of Patient Care  [PDF]
Kristiann T. Williams
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.47054
Abstract:

The aim of this project was to examine if stress levels in Associate Degree (AD) nursing students can affect their perceived quality of care provided to patients. Nursing students experience tremendous amounts of stress especially during their clinical experience. High levels of stress may affect the quality of patient care provided. This project implemented a stress reducing workshop and an instructional deep breathing compact disk (CD) to determine the effects of this intervention upon the stress levels of nursing students and the quality of care provided to patients. Nursing students completed a workshop where recognition of stress producing situations and effective ways to deal with them were discussed. Each student was provided with a CD containing a ten minute instructional deep breathing exercise which they were asked to listen to five times a week for six weeks. Nursing students were asked to complete Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Student Perception of Quality of Patient Care Provided questionnaire prior to and after the implementation of the intervention. The results of the two questionnaires were compared to determine effectiveness of the stress reducing interventions. Using paired t scores, results demonstrated that students’ stress levels were decreased and student’s perception of quality of patient care provided improved after the stress reducing interventions.

The Long Arm of the Law: Bringing International Drug Offenders to Justice in American Courts  [PDF]
Carl M. Williams
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.61011
Abstract: The exportation of the US war on drugs to the international arena has relied on the deployment of various strategies designed to reduce the supply of illegal drugs to the American market, and to hold perpetrators in foreign countries accountable. This paper focuses on the use of extradition in facilitating the prosecution of foreign nationals, and, through a case study of Jamaica, examines some of the problems inherent in the process of arresting and transferring drug offenders from countries within Latin America and the Caribbean to “face justice” in American courts.
Malignant Hyperthermia: Evaluation of “Organon” 9426 in Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptible Pigs  [PDF]
Charles H. Williams
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2015.52003
Abstract: Control pigs required 109.9 ug/kg/min and MHS pigs required 72.4 ug/kg/min infusion of Organon 9426 to maintain a 90% block. It appears that Organon 9426 is only one-third to one-half as potent as Vecuronium in pigs. The fact that MHS pigs only require 66% of the infusion dose to maintain a 90% block suggests that there is difference in the neuromuscular effect of Organon 9426 in MHS vs. control pigs. A linear regression analysis of the dose response data to Organon 9426 in MHS pigs indicated that 427.033 ug/kg would be required to produce a 100% neuromuscular blockade vs. 586.31 ug/kg in control pigs. Nine of the ten MHS pigs did not develop MH or show any signs of impending MH during the halothane and succinylcholine challenge at the end of the infusion period. Organon 9426 is the first muscle relaxant to offer significant protective action at a clinical dose. This suggests that there is an allosteric site on the sodium channel (acetylcholine receptor) which regulates the flow of sodium ions through the sodium channel. Organon 9426 may be therapeutically effective in an active MH case [1].
The Impact of Statin Intolerance in Lipid Clinic Patients  [PDF]
Kate Williams, Vinita Mishra
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.65040
Abstract:
Context: Cardiovascular disease is a very common and serious problem in the western world. Statin drug therapy is used in primary, secondary prevention and familial hypercholesterolemia. However, these are frequently associated with adverse effects, causing poor adherence and thus putting patients at risk for future cardiovascular events. Aim: The objective of this study was to review the statin intolerance in lipid patients and to assess the impact of alternative lipid lowering therapy on lipid parameters and cardiovascular outcome in statin intolerant patients. Methodology: 50 patients attending the out-patient lipid clinic of our hospital with statin intolerance were identified. Clinical data on the study patients were gathered retrospectively relating to statin intolerance and the clinical effectiveness of alternative lipid lowering therapy on lipid parameters and cardiovascular outcome. Results: Rosuvastatin was the most intolerable whereas pravastatin or fluvastatin was the most tolerable statin in our study patients. Myalgia was the commonly reported adverse effect of statin. The low dose statin monotherapy or combination of low dose statin and ezetemibe was the most tolerable alternative lipid lowering therapy in statin intolerant patients. After an average period of 10 months of initiation of alternative lipid lowering therapy; combination of low dose statin plus ezetimibe showed the largest reduction in serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Conclusions: Pravastatin should be preferred in statin intolerant patients. A combination of low dose statin plus ezetimibe appeared to be the most tolerable and clinically effective therapy in statin intolerant patients.
Mitigating Biodiversity Concerns in Eucalyptus Plantations Located in South China  [PDF]
Roger A. Williams
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.36001
Abstract:

China’s growing economy and changes in policies that encourage afforestation, particularly in the industrial sector, have led vast areas in south China to be planted with eucalyptus. These large areas of eucalyptus plantings have elicited environmental concerns for two primary reasons. First there is a concern related to the water demand of eucalyptus, in which it is feared these large areas of eucalyptus will deplete aquifers and create shortages in water supplies. The second concern is in regard to the reduction in biodiversity across large landscapes, leading to further ecological demises. This paper proposes two ideas to possibly mitigate some of the biodiversity concerns. The first is the interplanting of alder-leaf birch (Betula alnoides), a native but dwindling species in south China, to enhance biodiversity and encourage it’s reestablishment across the landscape. The second is to encourage retention harvests of alder-leaf birch planted within eucalyptus plantations to enhance not only biological diversity but also structural diversity across the landscape. Alder-leaf birch has demonstrated great potential in producing high quality timber and wood for use in furniture manufacturing.

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