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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14042 matches for " William Zule "
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Factors That Influence HIV Risk among Hispanic Female Immigrants and Their Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions
Amy M. Hernandez,William A. Zule,Rhonda S. Karg,Felicia A. Browne,Wendee M. Wechsberg
International Journal of Family Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/876381
Abstract: Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in North Carolina with increasing incidence of HIV infection. Gender roles, cultural expectations, and acculturation of women may explain some of Hispanic women’s risks. The perspectives of Hispanic female immigrants and community-based providers were sought to identify services they offer, understand HIV risk factors, and support the adaptation of a best-evidence HIV behavioural intervention for Hispanic women. Two sets of focus groups were conducted to explicate risks and the opportunities to reach women or couples and the feasibility to conduct HIV prevention in an acceptable manner. Salient findings were that Hispanic female immigrants lacked accurate HIV/AIDS and STI knowledge and that traditional gender roles shaped issues surrounding sexual behaviour and HIV risks, as well as condom use, partner communication, and multiple sexual partnerships. Intervention implications are discussed such as developing and adapting culturally appropriate HIV prevention interventions for Hispanics that address gender roles and partner communication. 1. Introduction Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States and in the state of North Carolina [1–3]. As the Hispanic population has grown in North Carolina, so have the HIV cases among them. Eight percent of newly diagnosed HIV cases in North Carolina in 2008 were among Hispanics [4]. HIV prevalence among Hispanics in North Carolina was 3.7 times higher than among non-Hispanic whites, and among Hispanic women it was 4 times higher than among non-Hispanic white women [4]. While Hispanic women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections in the USA, paradoxically they tend to report lower levels of HIV risk behaviours than African-American and non-Hispanic white women [5, 6]. This raises questions regarding why these rates are higher. One possible factor might be related to Hispanic cultural norms surrounding gender roles. Several of these norms may influence behaviour in ways that affect HIV risk and limit Hispanics’ understanding of risk and the manner in which they communicate about it. The cultural norm for men known as “machismo” describes the role of the Hispanic man in his family and in society [7, 8]. While there are positive aspects to machismo, other elements of it such as the belief in male dominance and an emphasis on male sexual prowess are used by some men to justify sexual encounters outside of their primary relationship [9, 10]. The cultural norm for Hispanic women, “Marianismo,” strongly encourages
African-American crack abusers and drug treatment initiation: barriers and effects of a pretreatment intervention
Wendee M Wechsberg, William A Zule, Kara S Riehman, Winnie K Luseno, Wendy KK Lam
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-2-10
Abstract: Using street outreach, 443 African-American crack users were recruited in North Carolina and randomly assigned to either the pretreatment intervention or control group.At 3-month follow-up, both groups significantly reduced their crack use but the intervention group participants were more likely to have initiated treatment.The intervention helped motivate change but structural barriers to treatment remained keeping actual admissions low. Policy makers may be interested in these pretreatment sites as an alternative to treatment for short term outcomes.Sociocultural factors may pose significant barriers for drug abusers seeking health care or substance abuse treatment. These barriers may be particularly problematic for some African-Americans and other disadvantaged populations. To help reduce the negative behaviors and outcomes associated with substance abuse and dependence, new intervention models need to be developed that specifically address the sociocultural environment of ethnic minorities [1]. Moreover, recent research has recognized the need to enhance understanding of crack cocaine dependence and how crack abusers interact with the substance abuse treatment system [2].Crack is a cheaper and smokable form of cocaine that became widely available in the mid-1980s, and it continues to be a public health problem in the United States. Crack use is present among all ethnic groups [3], but it is most common among African-Americans residing in low-income inner-city neighborhoods [4-7]. Findings from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) indicated that African-Americans made up 12% of the U.S. population, but they represented 19% of individuals who had used crack in the past year [8]. In addition, crack dependence rates are reported to be higher among African-Americans than among Hispanics or Whites [4]. Furthermore, cocaine-related emergency room episodes and overdose deaths were more common among African-Americans than any other racial/ethnic group
Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women in Cape Town, South Africa: Drug Use, Sexual Behavior, and the Need for Comprehensive Services
Hendrée E. Jones,Felicia A. Browne,Bronwyn J. Myers,Tara Carney,Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson,Tracy L. Kline,Winona Poulton,William A. Zule,Wendee M. Wechsberg
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/353410
Abstract: The multiple risks associated with methamphetamine use are of serious concern for women. These risks and consequences are magnified during pregnancy. This secondary analysis of a parent study compared 26 pregnant to 356 nonpregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa, on selected demographic, psychosocial, and HIV-risk domains to identify their treatment service needs. Proportionally, more pregnant than nonpregnant women are using methamphetamine, =.01, although a very high rate of women used methamphetamine. Women reported similar monthly rates of sexual intercourse, but pregnant women were significantly less likely to report condom use, <.0001, maintaining their risky behavior. Both groups reported elevated Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale CES-D means, suggesting a need for depression treatment. Results demonstrate a pervasive need for women's comprehensive treatment, regardless of pregnancy status. Moreover, findings support the urgent need for women-focused and pregnancy-specific treatment services for methamphetamine use. Finally, a job-skills training/employment component focus is suggested.
Substance abuse, treatment needs and access among female sex workers and non-sex workers in Pretoria, South Africa
Wendee M Wechsberg, Li-Tzy Wu, William A Zule, Charles D Parry, Felicia A Browne, Winnie K Luseno, Tracy Kline, Amanda Gentry
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-4-11
Abstract: Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N = 506) comprised 335 FSW and 171 female non-SW from Pretoria and surrounding areas. Self-reported data about alcohol and other drug use as well as treatment needs and access were collected from participants before they entered a brief intervention.As compared with female non-SW, FSW were found to have a greater likelihood of having a past year diagnosis of alcohol or other drug abuse or dependence, having a family member with a history of alcohol or other drug abuse, having been physically abused, having used alcohol before age 18, and having a history of marijuana use. In addition, the FSW were more likely to perceive that they had alcohol or other drug problems, and that they had a need for treatment and a desire to go for treatment. Less than 20% of participants in either group had any awareness of alcohol and drug treatment programs, with only 3% of the FSW and 2% of the non-SW reporting that they tried but were unable to enter treatment in the past year.FSW need and want substance abuse treatment services but they often have difficulty accessing services. The study findings suggest that barriers within the South African treatment system need to be addressed to facilitate access for substance-using FSW. Ongoing research is needed to inform policy change that fosters widespread educational efforts and sustainable, accessible, woman-sensitive services to ultimately break the cycle for current and future generations of at-risk South African women.South Africa has one of the highest levels of alcohol consumption per adult drinker in the world [1]. In 2000, estimates indicated that alcohol use contributed to 7% of disability adjusted life years lost in South Africa, ranking third out of 17 risk factors studied [2]. Among patients in specialized substance abuse treatment centers, alcohol is the primary substance of abuse report
Double jeopardy--drug and sex risks among Russian women who inject drugs: initial feasibility and efficacy results of a small randomized controlled trial
Wendee M Wechsberg, Evgeny Krupitsky, Tatiana Romanova, Edwin Zvartau, Tracy L Kline, Felicia A Browne, Rachel Ellerson, Georgiy Bobashev, William A Zule, Hendrée E Jones
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-7-1
Abstract: Women (N = 100) were randomized into one of two one-hour long intervention conditions--the Woman-Focused intervention (n = 51) or a time and attention-matched Nutrition control condition (n = 49).The results showed that 57% of the participants had been told that they were HIV-positive. At 3-month follow-up, both groups showed reduced levels of injecting frequency. However, participants in the Woman-Focused intervention reported, on average, a lower frequency of partner impairment at last sex act and a lower average number of unprotected vaginal sex acts with their main sex partner than the Nutrition condition.The findings suggest that improvements in sexual risk reduction are possible for these at-risk women and that more comprehensive treatment is needed to address HIV and drug risks in this vulnerable population.Russia is an emerging epicenter of the global HIV epidemic [1], accounting for 66% of all newly registered HIV cases in Eastern Europe and Eurasia [2]. The geographical nexus of Russia's HIV epidemic is St. Petersburg, with an HIV prevalence rate of 30-47% among injecting drug users (IDUs) [3]. Additionally, 80-90% of the HIV cases in St. Petersburg are associated with IDUs, many of whom are unaware of their HIV status [4-6]. Further, HIV morbidity is reported to be highest among IDUs in St. Petersburg [7].In earlier studies, Russian women in general and female IDUs in particular appeared to be at high risk of HIV, but HIV prevalence among them was relatively low [8,9]. However, between 1996 and 2006, the number of HIV-infected women increased rapidly from 29% to 44% [2,9]. In St. Petersburg, HIV prevalence among female IDUs was estimated to be 20% [10]. Consequently, there is a critical need to address the HIV risks of female IDUs [11-13].Because of the multifaceted risks women face, they are at high risk for contracting and spreading HIV. For example, sharing contaminated injecting equipment and sexual transmission are the main causes of HIV infection fo
Process and Product in Cross-Cultural Treatment Research: Development of a Culturally Sensitive Women-Centered Substance Use Intervention in Georgia
Hendrée E. Jones,Irma Kirtadze,David Otiashvili,Kevin E. O’Grady,Keryn Murphy,William Zule,Evgeny Krupitsky,Wendee M. Wechsberg
Journal of Addiction , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/163603
Abstract: Women who inject drugs (WID) are highly marginalized and stigmatized and experience ongoing discrimination in Georgia. Few opportunities exist for WID to receive publicly funded treatment for substance use disorders. The IMEDI (Investigating Methods for Enhancing Development in Individuals) project was developed in response to the need for women-specific and women-centered treatment services. This paper described our approach to understanding the Georgian culture—and WID within that culture—so that we could integrate two interventions for substance use found effective in other Western and non-Western cultures and to outline how we refined and adapted our integrated intervention to yield a comprehensive women-centered intervention for substance use. Reinforcement Based Treatment (RBT) and the Women’s CoOp (WC) were adapted and refined based on in-depth interviews with WID () and providers of health services () to such women and focus groups [2 with WID () and 2 with health service providers ()]. The resulting comprehensive women-centered intervention, RBT+WC, was then pretested and further refined in a sample of 20?WID. Results indicated positive pre-post changes in urine screening results and perceived needs for both RBT+WC and a case management control condition. The approach to treatment adaptation and the revised elements of RBT+WC are presented and discussed. 1. Background and Aims Injection-drug-using individuals are highly marginalized, highly stigmatized, and are at increased risk for STIs, HCV, and HIV worldwide [1]. Women who inject drugs (WID) experience this same marginalization, stigmatization, and increased risk for disease—without any recognition for the need for research and service delivery focused on their unique needs [1]. WID in Georgia are likewise highly marginalized and stigmatized and experience ongoing discrimination in Georgia. Although they represent up to 10% of the adult substance-using population [2, 3], only 1–5% of drug-related service beneficiaries are women [4, 5]. The World Health Organization [1] has recently called for worldwide efforts to provide treatment services for women to meet their unique needs, including physical abuse and violence. Women in Georgia who use illicit substances commonly experience emotional abuse, physical aggression, and sexual violence [6]. Such violations are rooted in social norms and traditions and a cultural environment that supports asymmetry in gender roles and places restrictions on women’s freedom and independence [7]. Recent economic problems in Georgia have facilitated women’s rise
Distribution of Mineral Substances in Different Wood Tissues of European Larch (Larix decidua Mill.)
Janja Zule,Jo?ica Dolenc
Drvna Industrija , 2012,
Abstract: Typical wood tissues, such as stemwood, bark, branches, twigs and needles, of two very old European larch trees (Larix decidua Mill.) were examined for the content of macro and micro mineral substances. Elemental analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) techniques were applied for quantitative determination of individual elements. The results indicated that both trees had almost identical mineral content. The highest contents of macro elements N, P, S, K and Mg as well as micro elements Ni, Fe, Al and Co were measured in needles, while Ca, Mn and Zn prevailed in bark. Concentrations of substances were the lowest in stemwood. Comparison with similar studies of foliar mineral distribution proved that both trees had good nutrient status, which corresponded to their condition.
Does Cluster Membership Enhance Financial Performance?  [PDF]
William Ruland
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.51001

This paper reports upon the profitability of firms that locate their headquarters in same-industry geographic concentrations or clusters and those that opt to maintain headquarters in other locations. While the preponderance of the theoretical and descriptive literature emphasizes the potential benefits associated with clustering, some papers suggest that clustering should not be beneficial, at least for particular types of firms in particular circumstances. This empirical study, which examines a sample of more than 4000 Compustat firms from 86 different industries, compares the profitability of firms in industry clusters and firms in other locations. The sample is partitioned into small and large firms to account for expected differences in profitability, in general, and the possible differential impact of geographic clustering. The results show that for smaller firms, the profitability of cluster members tends to be considerably lower than for firms that opt not to join clusters. For the subsample of larger firms, the results are mixed depending upon the measure of profitability. The results imply that smaller firms should carefully evaluate the decision to locate in industry clusters.

Why do we yawn?  [PDF]
William Burke
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510213

The biomedical hypothesis proposed here is that the immediate trigger for a yawn is a restricted collapse of a few alveoli in the lungs. The extent of this alveolar collapse may be too small for it to be detected by current X-ray technology, but this technology is continually improving and may soon be good enough to test the hypothesis. In support of the hypothesis, it is shown that yawning can be inhibited by deep breaths of air, nitrogen or carbogen, thus showing that yawning is not triggered by lack of oxygen or by excess carbon dioxide, leaving alveolar collapse as the most likely possibility. A more extensive form of alveolar collapse is termed atelectasis and this involves a serious state of hypoxia which, if deepened or prolonged, can be fatal. Therefore, if the hypothesis is correct, yawning may prevent the development of atelectasis and save lives. This paper is not concerned with other indirect ways in which yawning may be induced, nor with the mechanism and neural circuitry of the yawn, nor with social aspects of yawning, only with the immediate trigger. My aim is to get better evidence for the hypothesis put forward here and also to study the behaviour of the pulmonary alveoli in normal respiration.

The Ionic Composition of Nasal Fluid and Its Function  [PDF]
William Burke
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.68093
Abstract: The aim of the experiments reported here is to increase our understanding of the function of the nasal fluid. It is generally accepted that the nasal fluid assists in the humidification of the inspired air. It also assists in the capture of inspired particles such as pollen, preventing them getting lodged in the lungs. It is also known to contain antibacterial substances which keep the nose, nasopharynx and respiratory passages relatively free of infection. There are other features of the nasal fluid that are not understood. In cold weather, is it the fluid that collects in the nostrils pure water or nasal fluid? Why does nasal fluid have an exceptionally high potassium concentration? Does nasal fluid secreted during the common cold have the same composition as at other times? My objectives are to try to answer these questions. My method is to collect my nasal fluid in several different ways and have the ionic composition of each determined accurately. My findings are that nasal fluid is similar in composition however it is secreted. In cold weather, if expiration is via the nose, the nasal fluid is diluted by condensed water. The high concentration of potassium in the nasal fluid is not a way of controlling the level of potassium in the body but I suggest that it may assist in maintaining the antibacterial property of the nasal fluid.
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