Abstract:
Using recordings of swell from pitch-and-roll buoys, we have reproduced the classic observations of long-range surface wave propagation originally made by Munk et al. (1963) using a triangular array of bottom pressure measurements. In the modern data, the direction of the incoming swell fluctuates by about $\pm 10^\circ$ on a time scale of one hour. But if the incoming direction is averaged over the duration of an event then, in contrast with the observations by Munk et al. (1963), the sources inferred by great-circle backtracking are most often in good agreement with the location of large storms on weather maps of the Southern Ocean. However there are a few puzzling failures of great-circle backtracking e.g., in one case, the direct great-circle route is blocked by the Tuamoto Islands and the inferred source falls on New Zealand. Mirages like this occur more frequently in the bottom-pressure observations of Munk et al. (1963), where several inferred sources fell on the Antarctic continent. Using spherical ray tracing we investigate the hypothesis that the refraction of waves by surface currents produces the mirages. With reconstructions of surface currents inferred from satellite altimetry, we show that mesoscale vorticity significantly deflects swell away from great-circle propagation so that the source and receiver are connected by a bundle of many rays, none of which precisely follow a great circle. The $\pm 10^\circ$ directional fluctuations at the receiver result from the arrival of wave packets that have travelled along the different rays within this multipath. The occasional failure of great-circle backtracking, and the associated mirages, probably results from partial topographic obstruction of the multipath, which biases the directional average at the receiver.

Abstract:
The statistically steady humidity distribution resulting from an interaction of advection, modeled as an uncorrelated random walk of moist parcels on an isentropic surface, and a vapour sink, modeled as immediate condensation whenever the specific humidity exceeds a specified saturation humidity, is explored with theory and simulation. A source supplies moisture at the deep-tropical southern boundary of the domain, and the saturation humidity is specified as a monotonically decreasing function of distance from the boundary. The boundary source balances the interior condensation sink, so that a stationary spatially inhomogeneous humidity distribution emerges. An exact solution of the Fokker-Planck equation delivers a simple expression for the resulting probability density function (PDF) of the water vapour field and also of the relative humidity. This solution agrees completely with a numerical simulation of the process, and the humidity PDF exhibits several features of interest, such as bimodality close to the source and unimodality further from the source. The PDFs of specific and relative humidity are broad and non-Gaussian. The domain averaged relative humidity PDF is bimodal with distinct moist and dry peaks, a feature which we show agrees with middleworld isentropic PDFs derived from the ERA interim dataset.

Abstract:
This opportune case study describes visual and stepping behaviours of an 87 year old female (P8), both prior to, and following two falls. Before falling, when asked to walk along a path containing two stepping guides positioned before and after an obstacle, P8 generally visually fixated the first stepping guide until after foot contact inside it. However, after falling P8 consistently looked away from the stepping guide before completing the step into it in order to fixate the upcoming obstacle in her path. The timing of gaze redirection away from the target (in relation to foot contact inside it) correlated with absolute stepping error. No differences in eyesight, cognitive function, or balance were found between pre- and post-fall recordings. However, P8 did report large increases in fall-related anxiety and reduced balance confidence, supporting previously suggested links between anxiety/increased fear or falling and maladaptive visual/stepping behaviours. The results represent a novel insight into how psychological and related behavioural factors can change in older adults following a fall, and provide a possible partial rationalisation for why recent fallers are more likely to fall again in the following 12 months. These findings highlight novel possibilities for falls prevention and rehabilitation.

Abstract:
We develop a new nonlinear stability method, the Energy-Enstrophy (EZ) method, that is specialized to two-dimensional hydrodynamics; the method is applied to a beta-plane flow driven by a sinusoidal body force, and retarded by drag with damping time-scale mu^{-1}. The standard energy method (Fukuta and Murakami, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 64, 1995, pp 3725) shows that the laminar solution is monotonically and globally stable in a certain portion of the (mu,beta)-parameter space. The EZ method proves nonlinear stability in a larger portion of the (mu,beta)-parameter space. And by penalizing high wavenumbers, the EZ method identifies a most strongly amplifying disturbance that is more physically realistic than that delivered by the energy method. Linear instability calculations are used to determine the region of the (mu,beta)-parameter space where the flow is unstable to infinitesimal perturbations. There is only a small gap between the linearly unstable region and the nonlinearly stable region, and full numerical solutions show only small transient amplification in that gap.

Abstract:
Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to study illuminated TiO2 surfaces under both vacuum conditions, and in the presence of organic molecules (decane and methanol). In the presence of hole scavengers, electrons are trapped at Ti(III)–OH sites, and free electrons are generated. These free electrons are seen to decay by exposure either to oxygen or to heat; in the case of heating, reinjection of holes into the lattice by loss of sorbed hole scavenger leads to a decrease in Ti(III)–OH centers. Decane adsorption experiments lend support to the theory that removal of surficial hydrocarbon contaminants is responsible for superhydrophilic TiO2 surfaces. Oxidation of decane led to a mixture of surface-bound organics, while oxidation of methanol leads to the formation of surface-bound formic acid.

Abstract:
We study the representation of solutions of the three-dimensional quasigeostrophic (QG) equations using Galerkin series with standard vertical modes, with particular attention to the incorporation of active surface buoyancy dynamics. We extend two existing Galerkin approaches (A and B) and develop a new Galerkin approximation (C). Approximation A, due to \cite{flierl1978}, represents the streamfunction as a truncated Galerkin series and defines the potential vorticity (PV) that satisfies the inversion problem exactly. Approximation B, due to \cite{tulloch_smith2009b}, represents the PV as a truncated Galerkin series and calculates the streamfunction that satisfies the inversion problem exactly. Approximation C, the true Galerkin approximation for the QG equations, represents both streamfunction and PV as truncated Galerkin series, but does not satisfy the inversion equation exactly. The three approximations are fundamentally different unless the boundaries are isopycnal surfaces. We discuss the advantages and limitations of approximations A, B, and C in terms of mathematical rigor and conservation laws, and illustrate their relative efficiency by solving linear stability problems with nonzero surface buoyancy. With moderate number of modes, B and C have have superior accuracy than A at high wavenumbers. Because B lacks conservation of energy, we recommend approximation C for constructing solutions to the surface-active QG equations using Galerkin series with standard vertical modes.

Abstract:
We examine the vertical mixing induced by the swimming of microorganisms at low Reynolds and P\'eclet numbers in a stably stratified ocean, and show that the global contribution of oceanic microswimmers to vertical mixing is negligible. We propose two approaches to estimating the mixing efficiency, $\eta$, or the ratio of the rate of potential energy creation to the total rate-of-working on the ocean by microswimmers. The first is based on scaling arguments and estimates $\eta$ in terms of the ratio between the typical organism size, $a$, and an intrinsic length scale for the stratified flow, $\ell = \left ( \nu \kappa / N^2 \right )^{1/4}$, where $\nu$ is the kinematic viscosity, $\kappa$ the diffusivity, and $N$ the buoyancy frequency. In particular, for small organisms in the relevant oceanic limit, $a / \ell \ll 1$, we predict the scaling $\eta \sim (a / \ell)^3$. The second estimate of $\eta$ is formed by solving the full coupled flow-stratification problem by modeling the swimmer as a regularized force dipole, and computing the efficiency numerically. Our computational results, which are examined for all ratios $a/\ell$, validate the scaling arguments in the limit $a / \ell \ll 1$ and further predict $\eta \approx 1.2 \left ( a / \ell \right )^3$ for vertical swimming and $\eta \approx 0.15 \left ( a / \ell \right )^3$ for horizontal swimming. These results, relevant for any stratified fluid rich in biological activity, imply that the mixing efficiency of swimming microorganisms in the ocean is at very most 8\% and is likely smaller by at least two orders of magnitude.

Abstract:
The FKPP equation with a variable growth rate and advection by an incompressible velocity field is considered as a model for plankton dispersed by ocean currents. If the average growth rate is negative then the model has a survival-extinction transition; the location of this transition in the parameter space is constrained using variational arguments and delimited by simulations. The statistical steady state reached when the system is in the survival region of parameter space is characterized by integral constraints and upper and lower bounds on the biomass and productivity that follow from variational arguments and direct inequalities. In the limit of zero-decorrelation time the velocity field is shown to act as Fickian diffusion with an eddy diffusivity much larger than the molecular diffusivity and this allows a one-dimensional model to predict the biomass, productivity and extinction transitions. All results are illustrated with a simple growth and stirring model.

Abstract:
The role of the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factor family in T cell function has been well described. The c-Rel family member is of particular importance in initiating T cell responses to antigen and regulating activation of inflammatory cytokine genes, including the Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) genes. c-Rel is required for chromatin remodeling of these gene promoters, which involves depletion of histones from the promoters in response to T cell activating signals. These chromatin remodeling events precede transcriptional activation of the genes. The subsequent down-regulation of cytokine gene expression is important in the termination of an immune response and here we examine this process at the murine GM-CSF and IL-2 genes. We show that the cytokine mRNA levels rapidly return to basal levels following stimulus removal and this is associated with reassembly of histones onto the promoter. Histone reassembly at the GM-CSF and IL-2 promoters occurs concomitantly with depletion of RelA, c-Rel and RNA polymerase II from the promoters. Furthermore we show that transcriptional down-regulation and chromatin reassembly is dependent on depletion of c-Rel from the nucleus, and that this is regulated by the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB inhibitor, IκBα. The nuclear activation of c-Rel therefore not only regulates the initiation of GM-CSF and IL-2 gene activation in response to T cell activation, but also the termination of these gene responses following the removal of the activating signal.