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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 213777 matches for " William P. Blair "
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FUSE Observations of the Cygnus Loop: OVI Emission from a Nonradiative Shock
Ravi Sankrit,William P. Blair
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/324603
Abstract: We present Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of a Balmer filament in the northeast region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. The data consist of one spectrum obtained through the 30"x30" (LWRS) aperture and three spectra at adjacent positions obtained through the 4"x20" (MDRS) aperture. The nonradiative shocks in the region giving rise to these faint optical filaments produce strong OVI 1032,1038 emission, which is detected in all the spectra. The OVI emission is resolved by FUSE into a strong component centered at 0 km/s, and weaker components centered at +/- 140 km/s. The MDRS spectra allow us to study the variation of OVI emission in the post-shock structure. We find that the zero velocity emission is associated directly with the Balmer filament shock, while the high velocity emission comes from a more uniformly distributed component elsewhere along the line of sight. We also find that the shocks producing the emission at +/- 140 km/s have velocities between 180 km/s and 220 km/s, if we assume that the ram pressure driving them is the same as for the zero velocity component shock. In the context of the cavity model for the Cygnus Loop, the interaction of the blast wave with the spherical shell that forms most of the cavity wall can naturally give rise to the similar red and blue-shifted components that are observed.
The Magellan/IMACS Catalog of Optical Supernova Remnant Candidates in M83
William P. Blair,P. Frank Winkler,K. S. Long
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/203/1/8
Abstract: We present a new optical imaging survey of supernova remnants in M83, using data obtained with the Magellan I 6.5m telescope and IMACS instrument under conditions of excellent seeing. Using the criterion of strong [S II] emission relative to Halpha, we confirm all but three of the 71 SNR candidates listed in our previous survey, and expand the SNR candidate list to 225 objects, more than tripling the earlier sample. Comparing the optical survey with a new deep X-ray survey of M83 with Chandra, we find 61 of these SNR candidates to have X-ray counterparts. We also identify an additional list of 46 [O III] -selected nebulae for follow-up as potential ejecta-dominated remnants, seven of which have associated X-ray emission that makes them strong candidates. Some of the other [O III]-bright objects could also be normal ISM-dominated supernova remnants with shocks fast enough to doubly ionize oxygen, but with Halpha and [S II] emission faint enough to have been missed. A few of these objects may also be H II regions with abnormally high [O III] emission compared with the majority of M83 H II regions, compact nebulae excited by young Wolf-Rayet stars, or even background AGN. The supernova remnant Halpha luminosity function in M83 is shifted a factor of ~ 4.5x higher than for M33 supernova remnants, indicative of a higher mean ISM density in M83. We describe the search technique used to identify the supernova remnant candidates and provide basic information and finder charts for the objects.
Optical and Far-UV Spectroscopy of Knot D in the Vela Supernova Remnant
Ravi Sankrit,William P. Blair,John C. Raymond
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/374591
Abstract: We present spectra of optical filaments associated with the X-ray knot D in the Vela supernova remnant. It has been suggested that Knot D is formed by a bullet of supernova ejecta, that it is a break-out of the shock front of the Vela SNR, and also that it is an outflow from the recently discovered remnant RXJ0852.0-4622. We find that Knot D is a bow shock propagating into an interstellar cloud with normal abundances and typical cloud densities (n_H ~ 4-11 cm^-3). Optical longslit spectra show that the [S II] 6716,6731 to Halpha line ratio is greater than unity, proving that the optical filaments are shock excited. The analysis of far-ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope and with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) LWRS aperture show that slower shocks (~100 km s^-1) produce most of the low ionization lines such as O III] 1662, while faster shocks (~180 km s^-1) produce the O VI 1032,1038 and other high ionization lines. C III and O VI lines are also detected in the FUSE MDRS aperture, which was located on an X-ray bright region away from the optical filaments. The lines have two velocity components consistent with ~150 km s^-1 shocks on the near and far sides of the knot. The driving pressure in the X-ray knot, P/k ~ 1.8E+7 cm^-3 K, is derived from the shock properties. This is over an order of magnitude larger than the characteristic X-ray pressure in the Vela SNR. The velocity distribution of the emission and the overpressure support the idea that Knot D is a bow shock around a bullet or cloud that originated near the center of the Vela remnant.
Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of a Nonradiative Shock in the Cygnus Loop: Implications for the Postshock Electron-Ion Equilibration
Parviz Ghavamian,John C. Raymond,William P. Blair
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.1377092
Abstract: We present far ultraviolet spectra of a fast (~ 300 km/s) nonradiative shock in the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Our observations were performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite, covering the wavelength range 905-1187 Angstroms. The purpose of these observations was to estimate the degree of electron-ion equilibration by (1) examining the variation of O VI 1032, 1038 intensity with position behind the shock, and (2) measuring the widths of the O VI lines. We find significant absorption near the center of the O VI 1032 line, with less absorption in O VI 1038. The absorption equivalent widths imply an O VI column density greatly exceeding that of interstellar O VI along the Cygnus Loop line of sight. We suggest that the absorption may be due to resonant scattering by O VI ions within the shock itself. The widths of the O VI emission lines imply efficient ion-ion equilibration, in agreement with predictions from Balmer-dominated spectra of this shock.
A Detailed Analysis of a Cygnus Loop Shock-Cloud Interaction
Charles W. Danforth,William P. Blair,John C. Raymond
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/321161
Abstract: The XA region of the Cygnus Loop is a complex zone of radiative and nonradiative shocks interacting with interstellar clouds. We combine five far ultraviolet spectral observations from the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT), a grid of 24 IUE spectra and a high-resolution longslit Halpha spectrum to study the spatial emission line variations across the region. These spectral data are placed in context using ground-based, optical emission line images of the region and a far-UV image obtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). The presence of high-ionization ions (OVI, NV, CIV) indicates a shock velocity near 170 km/s while other diagnostics indicate v_shock=140 km/s. It is likely that a large range of shock velocities may exist at a spatial scale smaller than we are able to resolve. By comparing CIV 1550, CIII 977 and CIII] 1909, we explore resonance scattering across the region. We find that a significant column depth is present at all positions, including those not near bright optical/UV filaments. Analysis of the OVI doublet ratio suggests an average optical depth of about unity in that ion while flux measurements of [SiVIII] 1443 suggest a hot component in the region at just below 10^6K. Given the brightness of the OVI emission and the age of the interaction, we rule out the mixing layer interpretation of the UV emission. Furthermore, we formulate a picture of the XA region as the encounter of the blast wave with a finger of dense gas protruding inward from the pre-SN cavity.
The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope: The Final Archive
William V. Dixon,William P. Blair,Jeffrey W. Kruk,Mary L. Romelfanger
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1086/670227
Abstract: The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) was a 0.9 m telescope and moderate-resolution (~3 A) far-ultraviolet (820-1850 A) spectrograph that flew twice on the space shuttle, in 1990 December (Astro-1, STS-35) and 1995 March (Astro-2, STS-67). The resulting spectra were originally archived in a non-standard format that lacked important descriptive metadata. To increase their utility, we have modified the original data-reduction software to produce a new and more user-friendly data product, a time-tagged photon list similar in format to the Intermediate Data Files (IDFs) produced by the {\it Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer} calibration pipeline. We have transferred all relevant pointing and instrument-status information from locally-archived science and engineering databases into new FITS header keywords for each data set. Using this new pipeline, we have reprocessed the entire HUT archive from both missions, producing a new set of calibrated spectral products in a modern FITS format that is fully compliant with Virtual Observatory requirements. For each exposure, we have generated quick-look plots of the fully-calibrated spectrum and associated pointing history information. Finally, we have retrieved from our archives HUT TV guider images, which provide information on aperture positioning relative to guide stars, and converted them into FITS-format image files. All of these new data products are available in the new HUT section of the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST), along with historical and reference documents from both missions. In this paper, we document the improved data-processing steps applied to the data and show examples of the new data products.
A Comparison of Ultraviolet, Optical, and X-Ray Imagery of Selected Fields in the Cygnus Loop
Charles W. Danforth,Robert H. Cornett,N. A. Levenson,William P. Blair,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/301365
Abstract: During the Astro-1 and Astro-2 Space Shuttle missions in 1990 and 1995, far ultraviolet (FUV) images of five 40' diameter fields around the rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant were observed with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). These fields sampled a broad range of conditions including both radiative and nonradiative shocks in various geometries and physical scales. In these shocks, the UIT B5 band samples predominantly CIV 1550 and the hydrogen two-photon recombination continuum. Smaller contri- butions are made by emission lines of HeII 1640 and OIII] 1665. We present these new FUV images and compare them with optical Halpha and [OIII], and ROSAT HRI X-ray images. Comparing the UIT images with those from the other bands provides new insights into the spatial variations and locations of these different types of emission. By comparing against shock model calculations and published FUV spectroscopy at select locations, we surmise that resonance scattering in the strong FUV permitted lines is widespread in the Cygnus Loop, especially in the bright optical filaments typically selected for observation in most previous studies.
Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Observations of a Supernova Remnant in the Line of Sight to HD 5980 in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Charles G. Hoopes,Kenneth R. Sembach,J. Christopher Howk,William P. Blair
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/323514
Abstract: We report a detection of far ultraviolet absorption from the supernova remnant SNR 0057 - 7226 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The absorption is seen in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of the LBV/WR star HD 5980. Absorption from O VI 1032 and C III 977 is seen at a velocity of +300 km/s with respect to the Galactic absorption lines, +170 km/s with respect to the SMC absorption. The O VI 1038 line is contaminated by H_2 absorption, but is present. These lines are not seen in the FUSE spectrum of Sk80, only ~1' (~17 pc) away from HD 5980. No blue-shifted O VI 1032 absorption from the SNR is seen in the FUSE spectrum. The O VI 1032 line in the SNR is well described by a Gaussian with FWHM=75 km/s. We find log N(O VI)=14.33-14.43, which is roughly 50% of the rest of the O VI column in the SMC (excluding the SNR) and greater than the O VI column in the Milky Way halo along this sight line. The N(C IV)/N(O VI) ratio for the SNR absorption is in the range of 0.12-0.17, similar to the value seen in the Milky Way disk, and lower than the halo value, supporting models in which SNRs produce the highly ionized gas close to the plane of the Galaxy, while other mechanisms occur in the halo. The N(C IV)/N(O VI) ratio is also lower than the SMC ratio along this sight line, suggesting that other mechanisms contribute to the creation of the global hot ionized medium in the SMC. The O VI, C IV, and Si IV apparent column density profiles suggest the presence of a multi-phase shell followed by a region of higher temperature gas.
The Far-Ultraviolet Spectrum and Short Timescale Variability of AM Herculis from Observations with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope
Bradford W. Greeley,William P. Blair,Knox S. Long,John C. Raymond
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306853
Abstract: Using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT), we have obtained 850-1850 angstrom spectra of the magnetic cataclysmic variable star AM Her in the high state. These observations provide high time resolution spectra of AM Her in the FUV and sample much of the orbital period of the system. The spectra are not well-modelled in terms of simple white dwarf (WD) atmospheres, especially at wavelengths shortward of Lyman alpha. The continuum flux changes by a factor of 2 near the Lyman limit as a function of orbital phase; the peak fluxes are observed near magnetic phase 0.6 when the accreting pole of the WD is most clearly visible. The spectrum of the hotspot can be modelled in terms of a 100 000 K WD atmosphere covering 2% of the WD surface. The high time resolution of the HUT data allows an analysis of the short term variability and shows the UV luminosity to change by as much as 50% on timescales as short as 10 s. This rapid variability is shown to be inconsistent with the clumpy accretion model proposed to account for the soft X-ray excess in polars. We see an increase in narrow line emission during these flares when the heated face of the secondary is in view. The He II narrow line flux is partially eclipsed at secondary conjunction, implying that the inclination of the system is greater than 45 degrees. We also present results from models of the heated face of the secondary. These models show that reprocessing on the face of the secondary star of X-ray/EUV emission from the accretion region near the WD can account for the intensities and kinematics of most of the narrow line components observed.
An Atlas of FUSE Sight Lines Toward the Magellanic Clouds
Charles W. Danforth,J. Christopher Howk,Alex W. Fullerton,William P. Blair,Kenneth R. Sembach
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/338239
Abstract: We present an atlas of 57 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 37 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) observations obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. The atlas highlights twelve interstellar absorption line transitions at a resolution of ~15 km/s. These transitions cover a broad range of temperatures, ionization states, and abundances. The species included are OVI, which probes hot (T~3x10^5 K) ionized gas; CIII and FeIII, which probe warm (T~10^4 K) ionized gas; SiII, PII, CII, FeII, and OI, warm neutral gas; and six different molecular hydrogen transitions, which trace cold (T<=500 K) gas. We include Schmidt Halpha CCD images of the region surrounding each sight line showing the morphology of warm ionized gas in the vicinity, along with continuum images near each FUSE aperture position. Finally, we present several initial scientific results derived from this dataset on the interstellar medium of the Magellanic Clouds and Galactic halo.
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