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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 308330 matches for " William J. Triggs "
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Does Inhibitory Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Augment Functional Task Practice to Improve Arm Recovery in Chronic Stroke?
Dorian K. Rose,Carolynn Patten,Theresa E. McGuirk,Xiaomin Lu,William J. Triggs
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/305236
Abstract: Introduction. Restoration of upper extremity (UE) functional use remains a challenge for individuals following stroke. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive modality that modulates cortical excitability and is being explored as a means to potentially ameliorate these deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in the presence of chronic stroke, the effects of low-frequency rTMS to the contralesional hemisphere as an adjuvant to functional task practice (FTP), to improve UE functional ability. Methods. Twenty-two individuals with chronic stroke and subsequent moderate UE deficits were randomized to receive 16 sessions (4 times/week for 4 weeks) of either real-rTMS or sham-rTMS followed by 1-hour of paretic UE FTP. Results. No differences in UE outcomes were revealed between the real-rTMS and sham-rTMS intervention groups. After adjusting for baseline differences, no differences were revealed in contralesional cortical excitability postintervention. In a secondary analysis, data pooled across both groups revealed small, but statistically significant, improvements in UE behavioral measures. Conclusions. rTMS did not augment changes in UE motor ability in this population of individuals with chronic stroke. The chronicity of our participant cohort and their degree of UE motor impairment may have contributed to inability to produce marked effects using rTMS. 1. Introduction Between 55% and 75% of stroke survivors experience limitations in functional use of the upper extremity at six-months post-stroke [1]. Upper-limb motor recovery post-stroke is of special concern because the impact of UE impairments on disability and health is so marked [2, 3]. The persistence of UE impairments and the resultant inability to use the arm and hand prevents many individuals from returning to work, representing significant socioeconomic impact on the individual, the healthcare systems and society at large. While these problems are well recognized, little progress has been made in demonstrating substantive UE recovery in this population. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation with the capacity to modulate cortical excitability. In health, transcallosal connections create an environment of mutual interhemispheric inhibition [4], critical to normal motor control, and especially relevant to performance of skilled movements. Following stroke, decreased corticospinal excitability in the lesioned hemisphere leads to an asymmetry in this mutual transcallosal inhibition [5, 6]. Decreased
Do Leveraged ETFs Increase Volatility  [PDF]
William J. Trainor
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2010.13026
Abstract: The 2008 financial crisis has produced volatility levels not seen since the 1987 stock market crash more than 20 years ago. During that time, the culprit was thought to be index futures and program trading. This time, leveraged ETFs and their rebalancing trades have been singled out by some to explain both the spike in volatility and the appearance of large price swings at the end of the trading day. This study examines the merit of these accusations and whether the increase in volatility and end of the day price momentum is indeed linked to leveraged ETFs and their rebalancing trades. For the S&P 500, the relationship appears to be a spurious coincidence.
Calculating First Moments and Confidence Intervals for Generalized Stochastic Dividend Discount Models  [PDF]
William J. Hurley
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.32027

This paper presents models of equity valuation where future dividends are assumed to follow a generalized Bernoulli process consistent with the actual dividend payout behavior of many firms. This uncertain dividend stream induces a probability distribution of present value. We show how to calculate the first moment of this distribution using functional equations. As well, we demonstrate how to calculate a confidence interval using Monte Carlosimulation. This first moment and interval allows an analyst to determine whether a stock is overor under-valued.

On Laminar Flow in Microfabricated Channels with Partial Semi-Circular Profiles  [PDF]
William J. Federspiel, Isabella Valenti
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2012.21003
Abstract: Soft and hard micromachining techniques used to develop microfluidic devices can yield microchannels of many different cross-sectional profiles. For semi-circular microchannels, these techniques often produce only partialsemicircular (PSC) cross-sections. This study investigated fully developed laminar flow in PSC microchannels as a function of a circularity index, κ, defined as the ratio of the radiuses along the curved and flat surfaces of the PSC profile. A correction factor, K, to the Hagen-Poiseuille relation was determined and was well-fitted by the power-law relationship K=5.299/κ2.56. Actual correction factors were compared to estimates based on several hydraulic models for flow in microchannels of arbitrary cross-section, as well as the half-ellipsoid cross-section. The level of wall shear stress, when normalized by the pressure drop per unit length, increased approximately linearly with increase in the circularity index, κ.
On Some Numbers Related to the Erdös-Szekeres Theorem  [PDF]
Mark J. Nielsen, William Webb
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2013.33030

A crossing family of segments is a collection of segments each pair of which crosses. Given positive integers j and k,a(j,k) grid is the union of two pairwise-disjoint collections of segments (with j and k members, respectively) such that each segment in the first collection crosses all members of the other. Let c(k) be the least integer such that any planar set of c(k) points in general position generates a crossing family of k segments. Also let #(j,k) be the least integer such that any planar set of #(j,k) points in general position generates a (j,k)-grid. We establish here the facts 9≤c(3)≤16 and #(1,2)=8.

Using Visual Arts to Encourage Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Communicate Their Feelings and Emotions  [PDF]
Alicia Round, William J. Baker, Christopher Rayner
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.510009
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often experience difficulties in identifying their emotions and the emotional states of others, additionally, they also often experience challenges in verbal communication. Together, these characteristics can lead to compromised social and emotional well being and mental health issues. However, children with ASD often have relative strengths in visual processing, and such strengths have been integral to the success of visual supports and video-based interventions for a range of socially significant skills for children with ASD. This preference for visual processing may also rep-resent opportunities for children with ASD in identifying and expressing their emotions. There is a limited but promising body of literature that suggests visual Art therapy can be beneficial for individuals with ASD and provide opportuni-ties for them to develop flexibility, self-esteem, and social communicative behaviour [1]. This presentation reports a study exploring the potential of Art making to assist children with ASD to better communicate their feelings and emotions. Providing an outlet for self-expression may reduce the challenges people with Autism face and in doing so, improve the quality of life for them as well as their families. A qualitative descriptive case study was chosen for this study within the theoretical framework of Art as therapy. Two boys, aged seven and ten years, participated in five and six visual Art as therapy sessions (re-spectively). The sessions developed participants’ skills in Art making and ex-pressing emotion as rapport was built over the study period. A variety of rich data were collected during the study which included: questionnaires, interviews, video-recordings, observation notes and participant Art works. This presentation showcases the Art works of the participating boys, featuring a variety of mediums to communicate their thoughts, feelings, and emotions. A description of the visual Art as therapy experiences and the impacts upon students’ communication, social interaction, and self-esteem are discussed.
Financial Conflict Messages and Marital Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Financial Communication Satisfaction  [PDF]
Samantha J. Shebib, William R. Cupach
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.91010
Abstract: Conflict over money is one of the most commonly cited topics of marital disagreements (Oggins, 2003). However, little empirical research has examined how marital couples communicate about financial issues, specifically, and how these financial communication messages contribute to, or detract from, marital satisfaction. Knowledge about how couples communicate regarding financial issues is of significance to conflict scholars because it would allow us to understand the potential detriments of certain financial conflict message patterns and how these patterns ultimately affect one’s marital satisfaction. Married individuals (not marital dyads) were recruited online to participate in an online survey about their financial communication patterns within his or her marriage. In the present study of 326 married individuals, we found that constructive financial conflict messages were positively associated with financial harmony, marital satisfaction, and financial communication satisfaction. Destructive financial conflict messages, the demand-withdraw financial conflict message pattern, and mutually avoiding financial conflict were each negatively associated with financial harmony, marital satisfaction, and financial communication satisfaction. In addition, financial communication satisfaction mediated the relationship between each of the financial conflict message patterns and marital satisfaction. The current study lays empirical groundwork for developing a theoretical framework for understanding marital interaction patterns and the effects these patterns have on marital satisfaction.
The Three Pillars of Sustainability Framework: Approaches for Laws and Governance  [PDF]
William Henry Clune, Alexander J. B. Zehnder
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.93015
Abstract: The three pillars of sustainability framework is a multidisciplinary implementation and solutions oriented approach that recognizes most successful and scalable sustainability solutions require the presence of, and are driven by, all three pillars simultaneously: 1) technology and innovation; 2) laws and governance; and 3) economics and financial incentives. The three pillars framework is strategic because it often reveals or describes specific and feasible changes that advance sustainability solutions within markets and institutional settings. The section on technology discusses the crucial role that technology plays in creating new ways for doing more in our rapidly urbanizing communities by using less resources and energy inputs. The section on economics discusses problems with current conceptions of economic welfare that measure growth (flow) rather than the asset base (wealth), and explores possibilities for integrated and multidisciplinary analysis for coupled economic and social systems. The section on laws and governance considers the role of legal frameworks related to incentives, regulatory baselines, and in public policy formation, including influences and feedback effects from social norms, changing culture, and sustainability education. Technological development and engaging economic markets are at the center of our best and most rapidly deployable sustainability solutions. In that context, a specific focus is given throughout the discussion sections to the key role of laws and governance in supporting relevant, effective, and sustainable technological and economic development, as well as to highlight the crucial (often final) steps the law plays in successfully implementing new sustainability projects. As the discussions and examples (taken from Asia, the US, and Europe) demonstrate, the three pillars framework is flexible and useful in a number of contexts, as a solutions template, as an integrated planning approach, as a decision making guide, and for determining project priorities.
Scene Segmentation with Low-Dimensional Semantic Representations and Conditional Random Fields
Wen Yang,Bill Triggs,Dengxin Dai,Gui-Song Xia
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/196036
Scene Segmentation with Low-Dimensional Semantic Representations and Conditional Random Fields
Yang Wen,Triggs Bill,Dai Dengxin,Xia Gui-Song
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2010,
Abstract: This paper presents a fast, precise, and highly scalable semantic segmentation algorithm that incorporates several kinds of local appearance features, example-based spatial layout priors, and neighborhood-level and global contextual information. The method works at the level of image patches. In the first stage, codebook-based local appearance features are regularized and reduced in dimension using latent topic models, combined with spatial pyramid matching based spatial layout features, and fed into logistic regression classifiers to produce an initial patch level labeling. In the second stage, these labels are combined with patch-neighborhood and global aggregate features using either a second layer of Logistic Regression or a Conditional Random Field. Finally, the patch-level results are refined to pixel level using MRF or over-segmentation based methods. The CRF is trained using a fast Maximum Margin approach. Comparative experiments on four multi-class segmentation datasets show that each of the above elements improves the results, leading to a scalable algorithm that is both faster and more accurate than existing patch-level approaches.
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