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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 162286 matches for " William H. Gage "
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Cardiovascular Responses Associated with Daily Walking in Subacute Stroke
Sanjay K. Prajapati,Avril Mansfield,William H. Gage,Dina Brooks
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/612458
Abstract:
Ambulatory monitoring of activity levels of individuals in the sub-acute stage following stroke: a case series
William H Gage, Karl F Zabjek, Kathryn M Sibley, Ada Tang, Dina Brooks, William E McIlroy
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-4-41
Abstract: Activities and physiologic measures were recorded during a continuous 8 hour period from 4 individuals in the sub-acute stage following stroke (ranging from 49 to 80 years old; 4 to 8 weeks post-stroke) in an in-patient rehabilitation hospital.Both heart rate (p = 0.0207) and ventilation rate (p < 0.0001) increased as intensity of activity increased. Results revealed individual differences in physiological response to daily activities, and large ranges in physiological response measures during 'moderately' and 'highly' therapeutic activities.Activity levels of individuals with stroke during the day were generally low, though task-related changes in physiologic measures were observed. Large variability in the physiological response to even the activities deemed to be greatest intensity suggests that inclusion of such extended measurement of physiologic measures may improve understanding of physiological profile that could guide elements of the physical therapy prescription.Considerable effort in the rehabilitation process of patients with stroke is orientated towards addressing sensori-motor dysfunction [1,2] and cognitive deficits [2,3]. Although the majority of patients with stroke have concomitant cardiovascular disease, and as such can benefit from aerobic exercise training, the effects of such exercise among these patients is only beginning to be considered in the literature [4,5]. A recent meta-analysis which included seven randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of aerobic exercise training among patients with stroke reported that there is good evidence to support the use of aerobic exercise among patients with mild and moderate stroke for improving aerobic capacity [6]. Studies that have examined the effects of exercise [7,8] in sufficient dose and intensity have shown that improvements in cardiovascular fitness among individuals with stroke can be comparable to that of healthy, age-matched adults. The benefits of exercise for these individuals in
Cardiovascular Responses Associated with Daily Walking in Subacute Stroke
Sanjay K. Prajapati,Avril Mansfield,William H. Gage,Dina Brooks,William E. McIlroy
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/612458
Abstract: Despite the importance of regaining independent ambulation after stroke, the amount of daily walking completed during in-patient rehabilitation is low. The purpose of this study is to determine if (1) walking-related heart rate responses reached the minimum intensity necessary for therapeutic aerobic exercise (40%–60% heart rate reserve) or (2) heart rate responses during bouts of walking revealed excessive workload that may limit walking (>80% heart rate reserve). Eight individuals with subacute stroke attending in-patient rehabilitation were recruited. Participants wore heart rate monitors and accelerometers during a typical rehabilitation day. Walking-related changes in heart rate and walking bout duration were determined. Patients did not meet the minimum cumulative requirements of walking intensity (>40% heart rate reserve) and duration (>10?minutes continuously) necessary for cardiorespiratory benefit. Only one patient exceeded 80% heart rate reserve. The absence of significant increases in heart rate associated with walking reveals that patients chose to walk at speeds well below a level that has meaningful cardiorespiratory health benefits. Additionally, cardiorespiratory workload is unlikely to limit participation in walking. Measurement of heart rate and walking during in-patient rehabilitation may be a useful approach to encourage patients to increase the overall physical activity and to help facilitate recovery. 1. Background Regaining independent ambulation is important to those with stroke [1, 2] and is the most frequently reported rehabilitation goal [3, 4]. Therefore, walking should be an integral part of in-patient rehabilitation. However, accelerometer-based monitoring of walking activity has revealed that the amount of daily walking completed by individuals with stroke during in-patient rehabilitation is low [5, 6]. Importantly, the majority of walking bouts are of short duration (<1 minute) [5–7] and typically involve walking to essential activities (e.g., washroom, dining area, or therapy) [5]. While activity monitors provide insight into total daily activity [5–10], they do not inform the possible determinants or consequences of this activity. Aerobic capacity is reduced in the early months following stroke [11–13]. Furthermore, poststroke gait is inefficient, and there are increased aerobic demands on those with stroke when walking compared to healthy controls, even when walking at the same speed [14]. Therefore, individuals with stroke are closer to their maximal aerobic threshold when walking than healthy controls. This
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in Alzheimer's disease
Yangling Mu, Fred H Gage
Molecular Neurodegeneration , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1326-6-85
Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD), first described by the German neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer as Dementia Praecox in 1907, is an age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of memory and deterioration of cognitive functions. Individuals with the disorder usually experience difficulties in learning, performance speed, recall accuracy and/or problem solving [1]. The gradual intraneuronal accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles formed as a result of abnormal hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal tau protein, extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein as senile plaques, and massive neuronal death represent important neuropathological hallmarks of AD [2]. These pathologies are evident in specific, vulnerable brain areas and the hippocampus is one of the earliest to be affected [3]. The hippocampus is a mammalian brain structure that lies under the medial temporal lobe, with one on each side of the brain. Although there is a lack of consensus relating to terms describing the hippocampus and its adjacent cortex, the term hippocampus or hippocampal formation generally applies to the dentate gyrus (DG), the hippocampus proper - composed of CA1, CA2 and CA3 fields - and the subiculum. The organization of the hippocampal circuitry has been traditionally characterized as a unidirectional, trisynaptic excitatory pathway (reviewed in [4]). Briefly, the entorhinal cortex (EC) provides the main source of input to the hippocampus through connections to the DG. Information flow then proceeds from DG to CA3 to CA1. In turn, CA1 projects to the subiculum and sends the hippocampal output back to the deep layers of EC. Behavioral studies have long suggested that the hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory [5], which depend on functional and structural changes occurring in the hippocampus, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic remodeling [6,7]. The discovery of a de novo production of neurons in the adult DG has introduced the pos
Enhanced Functional Recovery in MRL/MpJ Mice after Spinal Cord Dorsal Hemisection
Sandrine Thuret, Michaela Thallmair, Laura L. Horky, Fred H. Gage
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030904
Abstract: Adult MRL/MpJ mice have been shown to possess unique regeneration capabilities. They are able to heal an ear-punched hole or an injured heart with normal tissue architecture and without scar formation. Here we present functional and histological evidence for enhanced recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in MRL/MpJ mice. A control group (C57BL/6 mice) and MRL/MpJ mice underwent a dorsal hemisection at T9 (thoracic vertebra 9). Our data show that MRL/MpJ mice recovered motor function significantly faster and more completely. We observed enhanced regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST). Furthermore, we observed a reduced astrocytic response and fewer micro-cavities at the injury site, which appear to create a more growth-permissive environment for the injured axons. Our data suggest that the reduced astrocytic response is in part due to a lower lesion-induced increase of cell proliferation post-SCI, and a reduced astrocytic differentiation of the proliferating cells. Interestingly, we also found an increased number of proliferating microglia, which could be involved in the MRL/MpJ spinal cord repair mechanisms. Finally, to evaluate the molecular basis of faster spinal cord repair, we examined the difference in gene expression changes in MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6 mice after SCI. Our microarray data support our histological findings and reveal a transcriptional profile associated with a more efficient spinal cord repair in MRL/MpJ mice.
A Process Model of Quantum Mechanics  [PDF]
William H. Sulis
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.516176
Abstract: A process model of quantum mechanics utilizes a combinatorial game to generate a discrete and finite causal space, which can be defined as a self-consistent quantum mechanics. An emergent space-time  and continuous wave function arise through a non-uniform interpolation process. Standard non-relativistic quantum mechanics emerges under the limit of infinite information (the causal space grows to infinity) and infinitesimal scale (the separation between points goes to zero). This model has the potential to address several paradoxes in quantum mechanics while remaining computationally powerful.
The Impact of Greek-Americans on U.S.-Greek Relations
Nicholas Gage
Intellectum , 2008,
Abstract: The writer analyzes the reasons why the Greek-American lobby is today emasculated and incapable of exerting influence on the American foreign policy. Contemporaneously, alternative ways of action are proposed, in order the approach of the American public opinion to become feasible consequently the American foreign politics.
Long-Term Functional Dynamics of an Aphidophagous Coccinellid Community Remain Unchanged despite Repeated Invasions
Christine A. Bahlai, Manuel Colunga-Garcia, Stuart H. Gage, Douglas A. Landis
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083407
Abstract: Aphidophagous coccinellids (ladybeetles) are important providers of herbivore suppression ecosystem services. In the last 30 years, the invasion of exotic coccinellid species, coupled with observed declines in native species, has led to considerable interest in the community dynamics and ecosystem function of this guild. Here we examined a 24-year dataset of coccinellid communities in nine habitats in southwestern Michigan for changes in community function in response to invasion. Specifically we analyzed their temporal population dynamics and species diversity, and we modeled the community’s potential to suppress pests. Abundance of coccinellids varied widely between 1989 and 2012 and became increasingly exotic-dominated. More than 71% of 57,813 adult coccinellids captured over the 24-year study were exotic species. Shannon diversity increased slightly over time, but herbivore suppression potential of the community remained roughly constant over the course of the study. However, both Shannon diversity and herbivore suppression potential due to native species declined over time in all habitats. The relationship between Shannon diversity and herbivore suppression potential varied with habitat type: a positive relationship in forest and perennial habitats, but was uncorrelated in annual habitats. This trend may have been because annual habitats were dominated by a few, highly voracious exotic species. Our results indicated that although the composition of the coccinellid community in southwestern Michigan has changed dramatically in the past several decades, its function has remained relatively unchanged in both agricultural and natural habitats. While this is encouraging from the perspective of pest management, it should be noted that losses of one of the dominant exotic coccinellids could result in a rapid decline in pest suppression services if the remaining community is unable to respond.
Dynamic Association of NUP98 with the Human Genome
Yun Liang,Tobias M. Franks,Maria C. Marchetto,Fred H. Gage,Martin W. Hetzer
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003308
Abstract: Faithful execution of developmental gene expression programs occurs at multiple levels and involves many different components such as transcription factors, histone-modification enzymes, and mRNA processing proteins. Recent evidence suggests that nucleoporins, well known components that control nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking, have wide-ranging functions in developmental gene regulation that potentially extend beyond their role in nuclear transport. Whether the unexpected role of nuclear pore proteins in transcription regulation, which initially has been described in fungi and flies, also applies to human cells is unknown. Here we show at a genome-wide level that the nuclear pore protein NUP98 associates with developmentally regulated genes active during human embryonic stem cell differentiation. Overexpression of a dominant negative fragment of NUP98 levels decreases expression levels of NUP98-bound genes. In addition, we identify two modes of developmental gene regulation by NUP98 that are differentiated by the spatial localization of NUP98 target genes. Genes in the initial stage of developmental induction can associate with NUP98 that is embedded in the nuclear pores at the nuclear periphery. Alternatively, genes that are highly induced can interact with NUP98 in the nuclear interior, away from the nuclear pores. This work demonstrates for the first time that NUP98 dynamically associates with the human genome during differentiation, revealing a role of a nuclear pore protein in regulating developmental gene expression programs.
Numerical Approximation of Fractal Dimension of Gaussian Stochastic Processes  [PDF]
Freddy H. Marin Sanchez, William Eduardo Alfonso
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.512169
Abstract:

In this paper we propose a numerical method to estimate the fractal dimension of stationary Gaussian stochastic processes using the random Euler numerical scheme and based on an analytical formulation of the fractal dimension for filtered stochastic signals. The discretization of continuous time processes through this random scheme allows us to find, numerically, the expected value, variance and correlation functions at any point of time. This alternative method for estimating the fractal dimension is easy to implement and requires no sophisticated routines. We use simulated data sets for stationary processes of the type Random Ornstein Uhlenbeck to graphically illustrate the results and compare them with those obtained whit the box counting theorem.

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