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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 157543 matches for " William F. Donaldson "
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Operative Treatment of Cervical Myelopathy: Cervical Laminoplasty
Brett A. Braly,David Lunardini,Chris Cornett,William F. Donaldson
Advances in Orthopedics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/508534
Abstract: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a degenerative process which may result in clinical signs and symptoms which require surgical intervention. Many treatment options have been proposed with various degrees of technical difficulty and technique sensitive benefits. We review laminoplasty as a motion-sparing posterior decompressive method. Current literature supports the use of laminoplasty for indicated decompression. We also decribe our surgical technique for an open-door, or “hinged”, laminoplasty.
Operative Treatment of Cervical Myelopathy: Cervical Laminoplasty
Brett A. Braly,David Lunardini,Chris Cornett,William F. Donaldson
Advances in Orthopedics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/508534
Abstract: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a degenerative process which may result in clinical signs and symptoms which require surgical intervention. Many treatment options have been proposed with various degrees of technical difficulty and technique sensitive benefits. We review laminoplasty as a motion-sparing posterior decompressive method. Current literature supports the use of laminoplasty for indicated decompression. We also decribe our surgical technique for an open-door, or “hinged”, laminoplasty. 1. Introduction Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the natural result of degenerative compression on the cervical spinal cord. The result may be a progressive and stepwise deterioration of neurological function in patients. The chronic debilitating nature of this process justifies surgical decompression. Posterior decompression has been described as a treatment for CSM since the 1940s. Laminectomy was the initial surgical option used. The decompression was performed by rongeurs. However, the insertion of the rongeur in an already limited space available for the cord led often to a decrease in neurological function postoperatively [1–3]. Even with modern approaches to laminectomy using high speed burs, development of postoperative instability has led surgeons to explore more efficacious ways of decompression. In 1977, Hirabayashi and Satomi published their results on multisegment decompression by means of an open-door laminoplasty [4]. This technique allows for adequate posterior decompression of the spinal cord while retaining the posterior elements. This avoids the postoperative instability seen with laminectomy as well as the stiffness and risks of posterior cervical fusion. Additionally, motion is spared due to the absence of a fusion. There have since been multiple techniques for performing a cervical laminoplasty described with supporting literature [4–8]. These techniques include the expansive “open door,” a midline “French Door,” En Bloc resection, spinous process splitting, and Z-Plasty [4, 9]. Outcome studies have supported laminoplasty as a valid treatment for CSM however, no definitive literature shows its superiority to laminectomy in conjunction with a posterior cervical fusion. All surgical strategies appear to be equal in yielding neurologic outcomes, though differences are found in complication reports. Patient selection is crucial prior to proceeding with cervical laminoplasty. Special attention must be paid to sagittal alignment for optimal outcomes. Laminoplasty is ideal for multilevel stenosis (AP canal diameter < 13?mm) due to
Development and Characterization of a Reverse Genetic System for Studying Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Strain Variation and Neutralization
William B. Messer,Boyd Yount,Kari E. Hacker,Eric F. Donaldson,Jeremy P. Huynh,Aravinda M. de Silva ,Ralph S. Baric
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001486
Abstract: Dengue viruses (DENV) are enveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. There are four genetically distinct serotypes designated DENV-1 through DENV-4, each further subdivided into distinct genotypes. The dengue scientific community has long contended that infection with one serotype confers lifelong protection against subsequent infection with the same serotype, irrespective of virus genotype. However this hypothesis is under increased scrutiny and the role of DENV genotypic variation in protection from repeated infection is less certain. As dengue vaccine trials move increasingly into field-testing, there is an urgent need to develop tools to better define the role of genotypic variation in DENV infection and immunity. To better understand genotypic variation in DENV-3 neutralization and protection, we designed and constructed a panel of isogenic, recombinant DENV-3 infectious clones, each expressing an envelope glycoprotein from a different DENV-3 genotype; Philippines 1982 (genotype I), Thailand 1995 (genotype II), Sri Lanka 1989 and Cuba 2002 (genotype III) and Puerto Rico 1977 (genotype IV). We used the panel to explore how natural envelope variation influences DENV-polyclonal serum interactions. When the recombinant viruses were tested in neutralization assays using immune sera from primary DENV infections, neutralization titers varied by as much as ~19-fold, depending on the expressed envelope glycoprotein. The observed variability in neutralization titers suggests that relatively few residue changes in the E glycoprotein may have significant effects on DENV specific humoral immunity and influence antibody mediated protection or disease enhancement in the setting of both natural infection and vaccination. These genotypic differences are also likely to be important in temporal and spatial microevolution of DENV-3 in the background of heterotypic neutralization. The recombinant and synthetic tools described here are valuable for testing hypotheses on genetic determinants of DENV-3 immunopathogenesis.
Asthma and PM10
Kenneth Donaldson, M Ian Gilmour, William MacNee
Respiratory Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/rr5
Abstract: There has been a trend towards an increase in both prevalence and exacerbations of asthma throughout the late twentieth century, at a time when the issue of air pollution has come to the fore in public and scientific awareness. It is therefore reasonable to ask whether there is a relationship between the two. Among the constituents of the air pollution cocktail, the particles or PM10 component is considered to be a significant culprit in terms of mediating adverse health effects [1]. This commentary focuses on the relationship between particulate air pollution and asthma.The average UK city has 20-25 μg/m3 PM10 in the air, but excursions to higher levels occur regularly [2]. The PM10 convention describes the mass of particles per unit air volume that deposit in the upper and lower airspaces, but excludes those that are so large that they deposit only in the nasopharynx.This topic has been dealt with in detail in a monograph by the UK Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollution [3]. There has been an increase in asthma, as measured by wheeze, GP consultations or hospital admissions, throughout the 1960s and up to the end of the 1990s. At the same time air quality has improved because of stricter control on industrial and domestic emissions ([3]; see also http://aeat.co.uk/netcen/airqual/ webcite for an excellent summary of the UK experience of air pollution in the past 10 years). However, despite the overall decrease in total mass of airborne particulates, the number of vehicles in the UK has increased twofold to threefold over the past 25 years, and concentrations of very small, combustion-derived particles have actually risen during this period [4].Asthma is a form of allergic lung disease that features an accumulation of inflammatory cells and mucus in the airways, with bronchoconstriction and a generalised airflow limitation. The induction phase of the disease arises from interactions between allergenic proteins and immune cells. Subsequent exposure to alle
Integrating a large-scale testing campaign in the CK framework
Andrei Lascu,Alastair F. Donaldson
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We consider the problem of conducting large experimental campaigns in computer science research. Most research efforts require a certain level of bookkeeping of results. This is manageable via quick, on-the-fly infrastructure implementations. However, it becomes a problem for large-scale testing initiatives, especially as the needs of the project evolve along the way. We look at how the Collective Knowledge generalized testing framework can help with such a project and its overall applicability and ease of use. The project in question is an OpenCL compiler testing campaign. We take particular interest in its storing capabilities and how it handles presenting the information it holds. We also provide an initial implementation, publicly available.
Overhauling SC atomics in C11 and OpenCL
John Wickerson,Mark Batty,Alastair F. Donaldson
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Despite the conceptual simplicity of sequential consistency (SC), the semantics of SC atomic operations and fences in the C11 and OpenCL memory models is subtle, leading to convoluted prose descriptions that translate to complex axiomatic formalisations. We conduct an overhaul of SC atomics in C11, reducing the associated axioms in both number and complexity. A consequence of our simplification is that the SC operations in an execution no longer need to be totally ordered. This relaxation enables, for the first time, efficient and exhaustive simulation of litmus tests that use SC atomics. We use our improved C11 model to present the first rigorous memory model formalisation for OpenCL (which extends C11 with support for heterogeneous many-core programming). In the OpenCL setting, we refine the SC axioms still further to give a sensible semantics to SC operations that employ a 'memory scope' to restrict their visibility to specific threads. Our overhaul requires slight strengthenings of both the C11 and the OpenCL memory models, causing some behaviours to become disallowed. We argue that these strengthenings are natural, and prove that all of the formalised C11 and OpenCL compilation schemes of which we are aware (Power and x86 for C11, AMD GPU for OpenCL) remain valid in our revised models. Using the Herd memory model simulator, we show that our overhaul leads to an exponential improvement in simulation time for C11 litmus tests compared with the original model, making *exhaustive* simulation competitive, time-wise, with the *non-exhaustive* CDSChecker tool.
Proceedings 7th Workshop on Programming Language Approaches to Concurrency and Communication-cEntric Software
Alastair F. Donaldson,Vasco T. Vasconcelos
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.4204/EPTCS.155
Abstract: This volume contains the post-proceedings of PLACES 2014, the seventh Workshop on Programming Language Approaches to Concurrency and Communication-cEntric Software, which was held in Grenoble, France, on April 12th 2014, and co-located with ETAPS, the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software. The PLACES workshop series aims to offer a forum where researchers from different fields exchange new ideas on one of the central challenges for programming in the near future: the development of programming languages, methodologies and infrastructures where concurrency and distribution are the norm rather than a marginal concern. Previous editions of PLACES were held in Rome (2013), Tallin (2012), Saarbrueken (2011), Paphos (2010) and York (2009), all co-located with ETAPS, and the first PLACES was held in Oslo and co-located with DisCoTec (2008). The Program Committee, after a careful and thorough reviewing process, selected nine papers out of 12 submissions for presentation at the workshop and inclusion in this post-proceedings. Each submission was evaluated by three referees (with one paper receiving a fourth review), and the accepted papers were selected during a week-long electronic discussion. One of the nine accepted papers was conditionally accepted subject to a process of shepherding by a PC member, which was successful and led to the paper's full acceptance. In addition to the contributed papers, the workshop will feature an invited talk by Akash Lal, Microsoft Research India, entitled "Finding Concurrency Bugs Under Imprecise Harnesses".
Isothermic submanifolds of symmetric $R$-spaces
F. E. Burstall,N. M. Donaldson,F. Pedit,U. Pinkall
Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.1515/CRELLE.2011.075
Abstract: We extend the classical theory of isothermic surfaces in conformal 3-space, due to Bour, Christoffel, Darboux, Bianchi and others, to the more general context of submanifolds of symmetric $R$-spaces with essentially no loss of integrable structure.
Peripheral Galanin Receptor 2 as a Target for the Modulation of Pain
Richard P. Hulse,Lucy F. Donaldson,David Wynick
Pain Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/545386
Abstract: The neuropeptide galanin is widely expressed in the nervous system and has an important role in nociception. It has been shown that galanin can facilitate and inhibit nociception in a dose-dependent manner, principally through the central nervous system, with enhanced antinociceptive actions after nerve injury. However, following nerve injury, expression of galanin within the peripheral nervous system is dramatically increased up to 120-fold. Despite this striking increase in the peripheral nervous system, few studies have investigated the role that galanin plays in modulating nociception at the primary afferent nociceptor. Here, we summarise the recent work supporting the role of peripherally expressed galanin with particular reference to the dual actions of the galanin receptor 2 in neuropathic pain highlighting this as a potential target analgesic. 1. Introduction The 29-amino-acid neuropeptide galanin was first identified in porcine intestine [1] and later in the rat central nervous system and intestine [2]. Since then galanin has been shown to play important roles in a number of physiological processes including cognition [3], feeding [4], and nociception [5]. This paper will consider activation of galanin receptors on primary afferent nociceptors as a possible target for pain treatment. 2. Galanin-Historical Perspectives and Spinal Nociceptive Processing Galanin is expressed in many areas of the nervous system involved in somatosensation including the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord [6, 7], and also in other CNS regions such as the arcuate nucleus and periaqueductal grey [8, 9]. In the peripheral nervous system, low levels of galanin expression is present in the DRG of intact adult rodents, with the peptide expressed in fewer than 5% of DRG sensory neurons [10]. These galanin-expressing neurons belong to a group of small diameter sensory afferents that respond to capsaicin [7, 11], which are characteristically C fibre nociceptors [12]. Galanin is now considered to be an injury-response peptide, as it is dramatically upregulated in DRG neurons in sciatic [6, 10] and saphenous nerve injury models [13–17]. The original observations of galanin upregulation after peripheral nerve injury strongly suggested a functional role for galanin in nociception and that these actions were through modulation of spinal nociceptive processing. Prior to the identification and characterization of galanin receptors in the central nervous system, functional studies demonstrated that galanin could modulate spinal nociceptive reflexes. Behaviourally, intrathecal
Activation of the galanin receptor 2 in the periphery reverses nerve injury-induced allodynia
Richard P Hulse, David Wynick, Lucy F Donaldson
Molecular Pain , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-7-26
Abstract: Exogenous galanin altered the responses of mechano-nociceptive C-fibre afferents in a dose-dependent manner in both naive and nerve injured animals, with low concentrations facilitating and high concentrations markedly inhibiting mechano-nociceptor activity. Further, use of the galanin fragment Gal2-11 confirmed that the effects of galanin were mediated by activation of galanin receptor-2 (GalR2). The inhibitory effects of peripheral GalR2 activation were further supported by our demonstration that after PSNI, mechano-sensitive nociceptors in galanin over-expressing transgenic mice had significantly higher thresholds than in wild type animals, associated with a marked reduction in spontaneous neuronal firing and C-fibre barrage into the spinal cord.These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the high level of endogenous galanin in injured primary afferents activates peripheral GalR2, which leads to an increase in C-fibre mechanical activation thresholds and a marked reduction in evoked and ongoing nociceptive responses.The neuropeptide galanin is expressed at low levels in ~5% of small diameter neurons in the intact adult rodent dorsal root ganglion (DRG) [1-3]. Higher levels of the peptide are also detected in the primary afferent terminals of the spinal cord (lamina II), the dorsal horn inter-neurons [4], and in a number of brain regions known to modulate nociception, including the arcuate nucleus and periaqueductal grey (PAG) [5,6]. After nerve injury and models of neuropathic pain, galanin expression is markedly increased in 30-40% of sensory neurons [7,8] and in the primary afferent terminals in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn [9].Behavioural studies have demonstrated that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of galanin modulates nociception in a dose-dependent manner, with facilitation of nociceptive reflexes at low concentrations of galanin [10,11] and a striking inhibition at higher concentrations [12,13]. The anti-nociceptive effect of hig
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