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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 179724 matches for " William E. Conner "
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Dietary alkaloids and the development of androconial organs in Estigmene acrea
Jason W. Davenport,William E. Conner
Journal of Insect Science , 2003,
Abstract: Male salt marsh moths, Estigmene acrea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), possess inflatable androconial organs called coremata. Prior to mating males form aggregations and inflate their coremata en masse. The communal display attracts additional males and females for the purpose of mating. The coremata are known to carry the plant-derived dihydropyrrolizine, hydroxydanaidal. This pheromonal substance is derived from secondary plant chemicals called pyrrolizidine alkaloids found in the larval diet.
Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function
Aaron J. CORCORAN, William E. CONNER, Jesse R. BARBER
Current Zoology , 2010,
Abstract: The night sky is the venue of an ancient acoustic battle between echolocating bats and their insect prey. Many tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) answer the attack calls of bats with a barrage of high frequency clicks. Some moth species use these clicks for acoustic aposematism and mimicry, and others for sonar jamming, however, most of the work on these defensive functions has been done on individual moth species. We here analyze the diversity of structure in tiger moth sounds from 26 species collected at three locations in North and South America. A principal components analysis of the anti-bat tiger moth sounds reveals that they vary markedly along three axes: (1) frequency, (2) duty cycle (sound production per unit time) and frequency modulation, and (3) modulation cycle (clicks produced during flexion and relaxation of the sound producing tymbal) structure. Tiger moth species appear to cluster into two distinct groups: one with low duty cycle and few clicks per modulation cycle that supports an acoustic aposematism function, and a second with high duty cycle and many clicks per modulation cycle that is consistent with a sonar jamming function. This is the first evidence from a community-level analysis to support multiple functions for tiger moth sounds. We also provide evidence supporting an evolutionary history for the development of these strategies. Furthermore, cross-correlation and spectrogram correlation measurements failed to support a “phantom echo” mechanism underlying sonar jamming, and instead point towards echo interference [Current Zoology 56 (3): 358–369, 2010].
Optimal Predator Risk Assessment by the Sonar-Jamming Arctiine Moth Bertholdia trigona
Aaron J. Corcoran, Ryan D. Wagner, William E. Conner
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063609
Abstract: Nearly all animals face a tradeoff between seeking food and mates and avoiding predation. Optimal escape theory holds that an animal confronted with a predator should only flee when benefits of flight (increased survival) outweigh the costs (energetic costs, lost foraging time, etc.). We propose a model for prey risk assessment based on the predator's stage of attack. Risk level should increase rapidly from when the predator detects the prey to when it commits to the attack. We tested this hypothesis using a predator – the echolocating bat – whose active biosonar reveals its stage of attack. We used a prey defense – clicking used for sonar jamming by the tiger moth Bertholdia trigona– that can be readily studied in the field and laboratory and is enacted simultaneously with evasive flight. We predicted that prey employ defenses soon after being detected and targeted, and that prey defensive thresholds discriminate between legitimate predatory threats and false threats where a nearby prey is attacked. Laboratory and field experiments using playbacks of ultrasound signals and naturally behaving bats, respectively, confirmed our predictions. Moths clicked soon after bats detected and targeted them. Also, B. trigona clicking thresholds closely matched predicted optimal thresholds for discriminating legitimate and false predator threats for bats using search and approach phase echolocation – the period when bats are searching for and assessing prey. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study to correlate the sensory stimuli that trigger defensive behaviors with measurements of signals provided by predators during natural attacks in the field. We propose theoretical models for explaining prey risk assessment depending on the availability of cues that reveal a predator's stage of attack.
The Culturally Competent Counselor: Issues Specific to Four Minority Groups  [PDF]
Gerald Conner, William Walker
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.53010
Abstract: Behavioral science helping professionals are ethically obligated to achieve cultural competence in their work with clients. The rapid rise of the minority population in the United States means that helping professionals can expect to work with clients from cultural backgrounds different from their own. This paper examines four cultural groups—African Americans, Hispanics, LGBT, and military veterans, and specific cultural concerns unique to each group. The purpose of the paper is to increase therapist awareness and knowledge of these group-specific cultural issues, thereby contributing to a greater degree of counselor cultural competence.
Cu(II) Benzoylpyridine Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Inhibition of Human Topoisomerase IIα and Activity against Breast Cancer Cells  [PDF]
Jennifer D. Conner, Wathsala Medawala, Madison T. Stephens, William H. Morris, Joseph E. Deweese, Patrick L. Kent, Jeffery J. Rice, Xiaohua Jiang, Edward C. Lisic
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (OJIC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojic.2016.62010
Abstract: The focus of this research is on the study of a series of copper (II) benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone complexes. Of the six benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone ligands used in this study, two are reported for the first time; 2-benzoylpyridine tert-butyl thiosemicarbazone (BZP-tBTSC), and 2-benzoylpyridine benzyl thiosemicarbazone (BZP-BzTSC). Once characterized by NMR, melting point, and MS, these mono-anionic tridentate ligands were then reacted with Cu2+ to form the new square planar metal complexes [Cu(BZP-tBTSC)Cl] and [Cu(BZP-BzTSC)Cl]. All of the copper complexes display marked inhibition of human topoisomerase IIα. The [Cu(BZP-tBTSC)Cl] complex shows marked activity against human breast cancer cell lines.
Spatially Explicit Nonlinear Models for Explaining the Occurrence of Infectious Zoonotic Diseases
Stephen Jones,William Conner,Bo Song
ISRN Biomathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/132342
Abstract: Zoonotic diseases can be transmitted via an arthropod vector, and disease risk maps are often created based on underlying associative factors within the surrounding landscape of known occurrences. A limitation however is the ability to map disease risk at a meaningful geographic scale, and traditional regression modeling approaches may not always be appropriate. Our objective was to determine if nonlinear modeling could improve explanatory power in describing the occurrence of 2 tick-borne diseases (Lyme disease (LD) and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)) known to occur in Tennessee. Medically diagnosed cases of LD (ICD-9: 088.81) and RMSF (ICD-9: 082.0) were extracted from a managed care organization data warehouse for the 2000–2009 time period. Four separate modeling techniques were constructed (logistic regression, classification and regression tree (CART), gradient boosted tree (GBT), and neural network (NNET)) and compared for accuracy. Results suggest that areas higher in disease prevalence were not necessarily the same areas having high predicted disease risk. GBT best explained LD occurrence (misclassification rate: 0.232; ROC: 0.789). RMSF prevalence was best explained with an NNET algorithm (misclassification rate: 0.288; ROC: 0.696). Covariates explaining disease risk included forested wetlands, urbanization, and median income. Nonlinear modeling may provide better results than traditional regression-based approaches. 1. Introduction Because zoonotic diseases are transmitted via an arthropod vector, it is often of interest to understand vector habitat in the epidemiologic study of diseases. It is common in spatial epidemiology to describe vector habitat and then create causal inference risk maps of potentially high-risk areas based on habitat preferences [1, 2]. These geospatial mapping exercises outline areas having high probabilities of vector prevalence and then infer disease risk based on probable presence or absence. For example, abundance of the tick genus Ixodes, one of which is the vector primarily responsible for the transmission of Lyme disease (LD), is associated with temperature, landscape slope [3], forested areas with sandy soils [4], and increasing residential development [5]. Tularemia prevalence is positively associated with dry forested habitat areas [6]. Human populations living within forested areas and on specific soils are at higher risk of contracting LD [7, 8]. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME or Ehrlichia chaffeensis) is more associated with wooded habitats compared to neighboring grassy areas [9]. A major
Resin Production in Natural and Artificial Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavity Trees  [PDF]
David L. Kulhavy, Kimberly B. Rozelle, William G. Ross, Daniel R. Unger, Richard N. Conner
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.54031
Abstract: Resin flow was measured in red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis Vieillot) clusters in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) in the southern region of the Angelina National Forest, Texas. Resin flow (ml) at 1.4 m height over 24 hrs was measured from one 2.5 cm punch through the phloem between 0700 and 1000 hrs from March 1999 to September 2000, for a total of 9 measurements per tree. Resin was sampled in naturally active cavity trees, artificial (insert) active, natural inactive, artificial inactive and control pines (84 sample trees). Resin flow pattern was significantly different during the year, but not significantly different in the cavity tree type resin flow. Cavity trees in the 90th percentile (>33.0 ml resin in 24 hrs) were defined as super resin producing. High average resin flows in August 1999 and September 2000 indicate when to sample resin for potential cavity trees. Regression equations were produced to estimate future resin production.
The Gastrointestinal Frontier: IgA and Viruses
Sarah E. Blutt,Margaret E. Conner
Frontiers in Immunology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00402
Abstract: Viral gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of diseases that kill ~2.2 million people worldwide each year. IgA is one of the major immune effector products present in the gastrointestinal tract yet its importance in protection against gastrointestinal viral infections has been difficult to prove. In part this has been due to a lack of small and large animal models in which pathogenesis of and immunity to gastrointestinal viral infections is similar to that in humans. Much of what we have learned about the role of IgA in the intestinal immune response has been obtained from experimental animal models of rotavirus infection. Rotavirus-specific intestinal IgA appears to be one of the principle effectors of long term protection against rotavirus infection. Thus, there has been a focus on understanding the immunological pathways through which this virus-specific IgA is induced during infection. In addition, the experimental animal models of rotavirus infection provide excellent systems in which new areas of research on viral-specific intestinal IgA including the long term maintenance of viral-specific IgA.
Teachers Creating Effective Learning Experiences for Indigenous Learners  [PDF]
Lindsey Conner, Judith Bennetts
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.96074
Abstract: “Recently professional learning and development has turned a corner. Teachers as leaders of learning have realized that they can be agents of change within their classrooms by focusing on quite specific teaching changes to improve outcomes for their learners” (Conner, 2015: p. 7). This paper provides examples of how teachers were challenged to link changes in their practice to include good principles of indigenous pedagogies (through participating in cycles of teaching and inquiry), to changes in students’ outcomes, which has rarely been reported previously. Vignettes of changes teachers made to their teaching were gathered as they responded to reflections and support from mentors and used student achievement data as tools for inquiry. Teachers were provoked to be more aware of the importance of evidence-informed critical reflection on pedagogical development that was appropriate for indigenous students. We provide an overall analysis and vignette examples to illustrate the emerging themes which were: the development of positive professional relationships (mentor-teacher, teacher-teacher and teacher-student), developing pedagogical knowledge that was appropriate for indigenous students that was also informed by seeking student and whānau (family) voice or feedback to inform changes to teaching.
Overexpression of interleukin-15 in mice promotes resistance to diet-induced obesity, increased insulin sensitivity, and markers of oxidative skeletal muscle metabolism
Quinn L,Anderson BG,Conner J,Pistilli E
International Journal of Interferon, Cytokine and Mediator Research , 2011,
Abstract: LeBris S Quinn1,3,4, Barbara G Anderson1,3, Jennifer D Conner2,4, Emidio E Pistilli5,6, Tami Wolden-Hanson1,21Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, 2Research Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 4Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research, Seattle, WA, USA; 5Department of Physiology, 6Pennsylvania Muscle Institute, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USAAbstract: Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a cytokine that is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. In addition to its well-characterized effects on innate immunity, IL-15 has been proposed to modulate skeletal muscle and adipose tissue mass, as well as insulin sensitivity. In the present study, an IL-15 gain-of-function model, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle-specific oversecretion of IL-15 (IL-15 Tg mice), was utilized to test the hypotheses that IL-15 promotes insulin sensitivity and resistance to diet-induced obesity (DIO) by increasing circulating adiponectin levels, and that IL-15 regulates skeletal muscle metabolism without inducing overt muscle hypertrophy. Compared to closely related control mice, IL-15 Tg mice exhibited lower total body fat following high-fat feeding, lower intra-abdominal fat following both low- and high-fat feeding, and greater insulin sensitivity. However, this was not accompanied by increased total or high molecular weight serum adiponectin levels in IL-15 Tg mice. While overall lean body mass did not differ, IL-15 Tg mice exhibited increased mass of the oxidative soleus muscle, and increased expression of mRNA encoding the slow isoform of troponin I (TnnI 1) in the predominately glycolytic extensor digitorum longus muscle. Skeletal muscle tissue from IL-15 Tg mice also exhibited alterations in the expression of several genes associated with fatty acid metabolism, such as SIRT1, SIRT4, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). These findings suggest changes in oxidative metabolism, rather than induction of adiponectin expression, appear to be responsible for the DIO-resistant and more insulin-sensitive phenotype of IL-15 Tg mice.Keywords: interleukin-15, skeletal muscle, obesity, adiponectin, UCP2, sirtuins
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